Category Course of History

Operation Blue
Course of History

Operation Blue

Operation Blue was the codename for the attack ordered by Adolf Hitler on the Soviet Union's oil fields in the Caucasus region in 1942. Operation Blue was to fail when the Sixth Army was effectively destroyed at the Battle of Stalingrad. OperationBarbarossa had failed in that the Soviet Union had not surrendered and Moscow had not been captured.

Read More

Course of History

The Treaty of Nonsuch

The Treaty of Nonsuch was signed in August 1585. The treaty finally led to England providing the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands with a small military force that would aid the rebels in their fight against Spain. The Treaty of Nonsuch was a triumph for ministers such as Leicester and Walsingham who had used all of their powers of persuasion to change Elizabeth's mind with regards to supporting men she considered to be rebels against royal authority.
Read More
Course of History

William Cecil, Lord Burghley

Sir William Cecil, Lord Burghley, was one of the major political figures in the reign of Elizabeth I. Burghley held all the major political posts in the land and was to all intents the most powerful non-royal in England and Wales. William Cecil was born on September 13 th 1520. He was born into a minor Welsh noble family that had fought for Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485.
Read More
Course of History

Mary Queen of Scots

The last letter written by Mary, Queen of Scots, was done in the early hours of the morning of her execution. It was addressed to Henry III, King of France, who was the younger brother to her first husband, Francis II. “Royal brother, having by God's will, for my sins I think, thrown myself into the power of the Queen, my cousin, at whose hands I have suffered much for almost twenty years, I have finally been condemned to death by her and her Estates.
Read More
Course of History

Mary's Coronation

Mary I's coronation on October 1 st 1553 was a well-received event after the trials and tribulations of the attempt to place Lady Jane Grey on the throne. At the very start of her reign, Mary was a popular figure recognised by the people as the legitimate heir to Edward as she was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon.
Read More
Course of History

Sir John Hawkins

Sir Richard Grenville was a military and naval commander in the era of Elizabeth I. Richard Grenville is most famous for his command of the 'Revenge' and his death while in charge of this ship. Richard Grenville was born on June 15 th 1542. His had a comfortable childhood as his father was a member of the Cornish gentry.
Read More
Course of History

Women in Tudor England

Tudor England witnessed many famous events such as the Spanish Armada, the Reformation and famous individuals such as Henry VII, Henry VIII and Sir Francis Drake. But what had happened to the position women had in English Tudor society? The position of women had remained unchanged for centuries and the time of the Tudors saw little, if any, improvement despite the fact that 1485 to 1603 saw 2 queens.
Read More
Course of History

James I

James I succeeded the last Tudor monarch, Elizabeth I, in 1603. James at the time of Elizabeth's death was king of Scotland. He was also the nearest blood relative to Elizabeth. James was a Stuart - so Tudor England died on March 24 th 1603 while the accession of James ushered in the era of the Stuarts.
Read More
Course of History

James I and the Great Contract

The Great Contract of 1610 was the idea of Robert Cecil, the Earl of Salisbury. The Great Contract was meant to have put the chaotic finances of James I on an even keel. In return for an annual sum of money in each year of the king's reign, the Great Contract stated that James would abandon his traditional feudal rights as king of England.
Read More
Course of History

James and Parliament

At the start of the reign of James I, he received a tolerably good welcome from Parliament. James seemed to offer Parliament a fresh start after the unpredictable behaviour of Elizabeth in her last few years. However, James was to quarrel with Parliament over a number of issues and this positive early relationship soon faltered.
Read More
Course of History

The murder of Buckingham

George Villiers, the Duke of Buckingham, had become very powerful under both James I and Charles I. Villiers had promoted many of his supporters to high office - and had financially benefited from doing this - but he had also made many enemies. On a visit to Portsmouth in August 1628, the favourite of Charles I was murdered.
Read More
Course of History

James I account of the Gunpowder Plot

This is James I's account of what happened on November 5 th 1605 - the day of the Gunpowder Plot. “To stop idle rumours and to be better able to solve the mystery, it was agreed to be put off until the afternoon before Parliament sat. This was upon the next Monday. (The Duke of Suffolk carried out the search).
Read More
Course of History

Sir Edward Coke

Sir Edward Coke was born on February 1st, 1552. Coke was educated at Norwich Grammar School and went to Trinity College, Cambridge. Coke trained as a lawyer and he was called to the Bar in 1578. By 1594, under the patronage of Lord Burghley (Coke had married Burghley's grand daughter Elizabeth) he had become Attorney-General.
Read More
Course of History

Guy Fawkes

Guy Fawkes is the name most associated with the 1605 Gunpowder Plot - the attempt by Guy Fawkes and others like Thomas Wintour, Everard Digby and Thomas Percy to blow up the king, James I, and members of Parliament. Guy Fawkes was literally caught on the spot and a 'guy' is still burned on bonfires - lit to celebrate the 'miraculous' survival of James I.
Read More
Course of History

The Pilgrim Fathers

In 1620 one hundred Puritans boarded the 'Mayflower' bound for the New World. These people were the Pilgrim Fathers. The Pilgrim Fathers saw little chance of England becoming a country in which they wished to live. They viewed it as un-Godly and moving from a bad to worse state. The Pilgrim Fathers believed that a new start in the New World was their only chance.
Read More
Course of History

The English Civil War

The English Civil War started in 1642 when Charles I raised his royal standard in Nottingham. The split between Charles and Parliament was such that neither side was willing to back down over the principles that they held and war was inevitable as a way in which all problems could be solved. The country split into those who supported the king and those who supported Parliament - the classic ingredients for a civil war.
Read More
Course of History

The Battle of Nantwich

The Battle of Nantwich was fought in January 1644. Nantwich had long been a Parliamentarian stronghold near to the Royalist centre of Wales. To all intents Wales was a Royalist enclave. The only area that could specifically be described as Parliamentarian was the southwest and centred on Pembroke and Tenby.
Read More
Course of History

Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford

Thomas Wentworth, the Earl of Strafford, was one of the main advisors to Charles I. Strafford became a devout supporter of Charles and was seen by Parliament, along with Archbishop Laud, as being the epitome of what was wrong in Stuart England. Wentworth paid the ultimate price for his loyalty when he was executed in 1641 - the price Parliament demanded for supporting Charles in his campaign against the Scots.
Read More
Course of History

Second English Civil War

The Second Civil War was fought between May and August 1648. While the Second Civil War witnessed no battles like Naseby, it witnessed a series of battles that led to the defeat of Charles I and his trial and execution. On November 8 th 1647, Charles I escaped from Hampton Court and begun to negotiate with the Scots to gain their support for his continued campaign against Parliament.
Read More
Course of History

The Levellers

The Levellers were a group of radicals who during the years of the English Civil War challenged the control of Parliament. Between July and November 1647, the Levellers put forward plans that would have truly democratised England and Wales but would also have threatened the supremacy of Parliament. For this reason, the Levellers never gained the amount of support in the right places that they needed to succeed.
Read More
Course of History

Life in England under Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell remains one of our most famous characters in history. From 1649 to 1653, Parliament ran England but from Cromwell's point of view, it was not a system that worked effectively and England, as a nation was suffering. As a result, Cromwell, backed by the army, sent home MP's and he became the effective leader of England from 1653 to 1658 .
Read More