Operation Blue was the codename for the attack ordered by Adolf Hitler on the Soviet Union's oil fields in the Caucasus region in 1942. Operation Blue was to fail when the Sixth Army was effectively destroyed at the Battle of Stalingrad. OperationBarbarossa had failed in that the Soviet Union had not surrendered and Moscow had not been captured.
Category Course of History
During the era of Medieval England, Oxford University witnessed the establishment of four specific colleges and also monastic colleges. The four colleges were Balliol, University, Merton and Exeter. Balliol can claim to be Oxford University's oldest college as it may have been founded as early as 1261 - records certainly show that students existed at Balliol before June 1266.
Medieval monasteries were the wealthiest land owners in Medieval England - more so than any medieval king. Medieval monasteries dominated the church in Medieval England as the monks who lived and worked in them were considered to be extremely holy. How did monasteries acquire their wealth? In Medieval England, the belief in Heaven and Hell was total.
Law and order was very harsh in Medieval England. Those in charge of law and order believed that people would only learn how to behave properly if they feared what would happen to them if they broke the law. Even the 'smallest' offences had serious punishments. The authorities feared the poor simply because there were many more poor than rich and any revolt could be potentially damaging - as the Peasants Revolt of 1381 proved.
While Henry VII had won at the Battle of Bosworth, there was little guarantee that he would remain as king of England as there were many in the House of York who had a claim to the throne. Little known by many in the land before the battle at Bosworth, Henry clearly had a struggle on his hands to maintain his grip on the throne.
Two areas of England had their own provincial councils - Wales and the North. These provincial councils had existed before the reign of Henry VII and Henry decided to continue with them after he became king after his victory at Bosworth. In general, these councils had a positive relationship with Henry.
Ireland represented a major challenge to Henry VII's belief in strong monarchical rule. During the War of the Roses, Ireland had been primarily for the Yorkists and as a Lancastrian Henry would have had little support. Henry VII ultimately adopted a different approach to governing what was potentially the most difficult of his regions.
While ordinary revenue was an annual feature for Henry VII, extraordinary revenue was not. Extraordinary revenue came to the crown only on specific occasions and for very particular reasons. Extraordinary revenue was made up of parliamentary grants, loans and benevolences, clerical taxes, feudal obligations and the French pension.
What did Henry VIII inherit when he became king in 1509? His father, Henry VII, left him with a country that was more united than it had been in 1485. The threat of rebellion amongst the people did exist but the state was more stable than it had been for centuries. Henry VII had effectively tamed the nobility so that it worked for the king rather than against it.
Within Europe there was a mixed reaction to the divorce of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. While Henry VIII waited for an outcome to come from the Pope (Clement VII), there is evidence that Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, took the view that the Pope should come out in support of Catherine of Aragon and made his views clear to the Papacy.
While the case for a divorce against Catherine of Aragon was building, one aspect of the church that the advisors of Henry VIII was studying revolved around what were perceived as church abuses - abuses of church power and authority. If the likes of Thomas Cromwell could prove that the church was letting down its flock as a result of these abuses, then it would seemingly be all the more easy to convince the English public that the church needed wholesale reform without provoking any sort of backlash.
The causes of the Pilgrimage of Grace have remained difficult to pin down for many years. The Pilgrimage of Grace was essentially specific to Yorkshire. What would have caused many thousands of people to rise up in Yorkshire to cause a rebellion that clearly rattled the government of Henry VIII? While much has been written about the Pilgrimage of Grace, it has proved difficult to specifically pin down why so many people rallied to the cause.
Jane Seymour was Henry VIII's third wife. Jane married him just eleven days after Anne Boleyn was executed. The marriage between Jane Seymour and Henry was on May 30th 1536. Jane was born between 1507 and 1509. The Seymour's were a well-respected and old noble family. Jane had been a maid of honour at the court of both Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn.
Cardinal Wolsey always maintained that he served Henry VIII to the highest levels. Wolsey's fall was primarily due to his failure to get Henry the annulment to his marriage to Catherine of Aragon that would allow Henry's marriage to Anne Boleyn. As the Pope's most senior officer in England, Wolsey had seemingly made it clear to Henry that the required annulment was an easy requirement as he had the necessary contacts in Rome.
Anne Boleyn was Henry VIII's second wife. She married Henry in January 1533 - four months before his divorce from Catherine of Aragon was announced. Anne was born in 1500 or 1501. She was considered beautiful with dark eyes, long dark hair and a lively personality. At the age of 13 she worked in the French court.
The Western Rebellion, which started in 1547, involved the western counties of Cornwall, Devon and Dorset. The Western Rebellion is the title given ostensibly to a religious rebellion against the 1547 Act of Uniformity. However, it also coincided with social and economic problems within these counties whereby the gentry was accused of using the dislocation associated with the Reformation as an entity to grasp land from the people and to push through at a local level further enclosure.
John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland was a Tudor soldier and politician who became Chief Minister in the reign of Edward VI. John Dudley is most associated with the attempt to get Lady Jane Grey onto the throne of England on the death of Edward. The failure of this led to the execution of Dudley. John Dudley was born in 1502.
Thomas Cromwell served as Henry VIII's chief minister from 1533 to 1540. Cromwell gained a reputation as an unscrupulous politician who, like Cardinal Wolsey, would do anything to advance himself and the power and wealth of Henry. Thomas Cromwell is most associated with the dissolution of the monasteries and the controversy that surrounded this event.
Nicholas Ridley was a Protestant theologian who, like his contemporaries Thomas Cranmer and Hugh Latimer, was executed as a heretic in the reign of Mary I. Nicholas Ridley was probably born in 1503. His father was Christopher Ridley, a well-off member of the Northumbria gentry. Ridley himself had a distinguished academic record.
Cardinal Wolsey acquired a huge fortune in the years from 1515 to 1529. Wolsey's wealth allowed him to live a lifestyle that to all intents was kingly. Wolsey had a number of homes and his wealth enabled him to purchase Hampton Court and York House (later the Palace of Westminster). Wolsey's court rivalled that of Henry VIII.
From the start of her reign in 1558, Elizabeth I was pressurised into marriage so that there would be an heir to the throne. Even though Elizabeth was Queen, members of the Privy Council still felt that it was their right and duty to persuade Elizabeth that marriage was for the best of the nation. We do know that Elizabeth had a huge sense of duty to her country but whether she ever really intended to get married is open to debate.