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The Middle East 1917 to 1973
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The Middle East 1917 to 1973

The McMahon Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916 The Balfour Declaration of 1917 Palestine 1918 to 1948 Palestine and the League of Nations The Jewish Agency Haganah The Middle East and the United Nations The Bombing of the King David Hotel Israel and the 1948 War David Ben-Gurion Gamal Abdel Nasser The Six Day War The Palestinian Liberation Organisation Golda Meir Moshe Dayan The Yom Kippur War of 1973 Anwar al Sadat The Sadat Initiative Menachem Begin and Israel Moshe Landau

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Elizabeth I and the Catholic Church

Roman Catholicism was enforced in England and Wales during the reign of Mary I. Protestants were persecuted and a number were executed as heretics. Many fled for their own safety to Protestant states in Europe. However, all this changed on the death of Mary and the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. Elizabeth had been educated as a Protestant and it as only a matter of time before she reversed the religious changes of Mary, sweeping aside Roman Catholicism.
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The Three Articles

In 1583 John Whitgift, the new Archbishop of Canterbury, introduced a document known as the Three Articles. This was an attempt to bring into line nonconformists who were unwilling to follow the Elizabethan Church. Whitgift had gained a reputation as a man who had no love of the Puritans even before his appointment by Elizabeth.
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Sir Francis Walsingham

Sir Francis Walsingham was a government administrator in the reign of Elizabeth I. Walsingham is principally remembered for his part in the trial and execution of Mary, Queen of Scots. Walsingham was born around 1532. His father, William, was a lawyer. Walsingham was well-educated and attended King's College, Cambridge from 1548 to 1550.
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Sir Martin Frobisher

Sir Martin Frobisher was an eminent mariner during the reign of Elizabeth I. Frobisher, along with the likes of Raleigh, Hawkins and Drake gained for England a reputation for naval supremacy. Though Drake may have cemented his historical legacy with his involvement in the Spanish Armada in 1588, Frobisher was one of the chief commanders of the English Navy and also fought against the Spanish in this English victory.
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Tudor Sports and Pastimes

Sport and pastimes in Tudor England tended to mirror the likes and dislikes of the king or queen who reigned at this time. Henry VIII had a great love for certain sports, especially hunting, while his daughter, Elizabeth, liked pastimes which we would find very cruel such as bear-baiting and bear-gardens.
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Elizabeth I and Spain

When Elizabeth became Queen in 1558 on the death of her half-sister Mary, England had a decent relationship with Spain. Mary's marriage to Philip of Spain obviously helped to cement this even if the marriage itself was not a success. There were those in the Privy Council and Parliament who believed that Elizabeth would marry Philip herself to ensure that both nations stayed close.
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James I and Royal Revenue

James I has always been viewed as an extravagant king who gave no thought to finance - if James wanted something, he had it regardless of cost. When James became king in 1603, he described himself as being “like a poor man wandering about forty years in a wilderness and barren soil, and now arrived at the land of promise.
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Anne of Denmark

Anne of Denmark was the wife of James I, the first of the Stuart monarchs. Anne was born on October 14th, 1574 at Skanderborg Castle in Denmark. She married James by proxy in August 1589 though the actual marriage took place in Oslo on November 23rd, 1589. James thought of himself as an intellectual and academic.
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Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset

Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, was the favourite of James I until his fall from grace and was suitably rewarded with a succession of titles. Carr remained the main favourite of James I up until the time that James met George Villiers, the future Duke of Buckingham. It is thought that Robert Carr was born in 1590.
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Francis Tresham

Francis Tresham was one the 1605 Gunpowder Plot conspirators. The part played in the plot by Francis Tresham is probably crucial in explaining why it failed - as it was Tresham who almost certainly sent a letter to Lord Monteagle warning him of the dangers of being in Parliament on November 5 th - the day James I was a due to open Parliament.
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Thomas Wintour

Thomas Wintour was one of the conspirators in the 1605 Gunpowder Plot - the attempt to kill James I and as many members of Parliament as was possible. Thomas Wintour paid for his role in the plot when on a cold January morning in 1606 he was executed. Thomas Wintour was born in 1572. His father, George, was tolerably well off as he owned hop yards and twenty-five salt-evaporating pans in Droitwich.
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James I and Witchcraft

James I considered himself to be an intellect. In particular James saw himself as an expert on witchcraft, which was still an issue in Stuart England in so far as many did not share the same views as James. The idea of black and witch witches can be traced back to Roman times. However in the sixteenth century a new Christian theory developed based on Christian theology, canon law and philosophical ideas.
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The Arminians

The Arminians took their name from Jacob Arminius. The Arminians took the view that Man had far greater freedom to shape his future than was stated in predestination. Such views obviously concerned those who led the Church in England and in 1622, James I ordered that only people with a Bachelor of Divinity or higher were allowed to preach about such lofty ideas as predestination etc.
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Timeline for causes of the English Civil War

The causes of the English Civil War covered a number of years. The reign of Charles I had seen a marked deterioration in the relationship between Crown and Parliament. This breakdown may well have occurred as early as 1625 when it became clear to Parliament that Charles was going to allow George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, to maintain his huge influence on the Crown despite the death of James I.
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Timeline for the English Civil War

The English Civl War lasted from 1642 until 1649 and included what is called the Second Civil War. The war ended with what many in 1642 could never have considered - the trial and execution of Charles I. 1642 January: Charles attempted to arrest five MP's (January 4 th ). Charles left London (January 10 th ).
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English Catholics 1603 to 1606

English Catholics were full of hope when James I made his way to London from Scotland in 1603. English Catholics believed that James had promised them an improved lifestyle once he had ascended the throne and all Catholics in England expected a more tolerant society. If Catholics expected greater tolerance they were greatly let down.
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Soldiers in the English Civil War

When the English Civil War started in 1642, any notion that soldiers on either side would or should be professional would have been rejected out of hand. However, by the time the war ended, the idea of a well-trained army that nodded towards professionalism and led by able officers had taken root. The historian Martyn Bennett has stated that the soldiers in the New Model Army were the precursors of modern professional soldiers.
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The sieges of Newark

Newark suffered three sieges during the English Civil War. Control of Newark was important to both sides during the civil war as two important roads ran through the town - the Great North Way and Fosse Way. For the Royalists control of Newark was vital as it connected their headquarters in Oxford to Royalist centres in the northeast.
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Charles II

Charles II, son of Charles I, became King of England, Ireland, Wales and Scotland in 1660 as a result of the Restoration Settlement. Charles ruled to 1685 and his reign is famous for the 1665 Great Plague that primarily affected London and the 1666 Great Fire of London. Charles was born on May 29 th 1630 at St.
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John Bradshaw

John Bradshaw was the chief judge in the trial of Charles I and the man who pronounced the death sentence on the king. Like others labelled a regicide, John Bradshaw's remains were dug up and symbolically hanged in 1660 on the Restoration of Charles II. John Bradshaw was born in 1602 in Stockport. He was educated at Stockport Grammar School and went on to excel in law.
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