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New National SaStr - History

New National SaStr - History

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New National
(SwStr: t. 1,000; a. 1 12-pdr. r.)

New National, a wooden side-wheel steamer, was seized by Union gunboats at Memphis, Tenn., 6 June 1862, after they had destroyed the Confederate River Defense Fleet.

Placed in service as a transport, First Master A. M. Grant in command, for the War Department's Western Flotilla, New National carried troops in a joint expedition to St. Charles, Ark., where they landed 17 June, stormed Southern earthworks, and won control of the White River for the Union fleet.

Transferred from the War Department to the Navy 30 September 1862, New National served as a receiving ship and as a mail and supply boat for the Mississippi Squadron.

Returned to her owner, Pearson Montgomery, at the intervention of Secretary of the Treasury Chase, 21 March 1863 she was simultaneously chartered by the Navy and kept in service.

After the fall of Vicksburg, she participated in the expedition which captured Yazoo City, Miss., 13 July 1863.

Following service maintaining Union communication and supply lines on the Mississippi and its tributaries through the end of the Civil War, New' National decommissioned at Mound City, Ill., 12 April 1865 and was returned to her owner.

Miss Mississippi could make history at Miss Universe pageant

Asya Branch could make history Sunday as the first Mississippi native to hold the Miss Universe title, and the first Miss USA to win since 2012.

The first Black Miss Mississippi, and the first from the state to win Miss USA, Branch is competing in the 69th Miss Universe competition, taking place this weekend at the Seminole Hard Rock Hotel & Casino Hollywood in Hollywood, Florida. Sunday night marks the final crowning after days of swimsuit and evening gown competitions.

Branch was the first Mississippi representative to win Miss USA and the first Black woman to take the Miss Mississippi USA crown in 2019. If Branch wins Miss Universe on Sunday, she would be the first Mississippi native to ever hold the title and the first Miss USA to win the competition since 2012.

“I was so honored to have made history, but at the same time, I thought, ‘Wow . we’re still having firsts,’ " Branch told the Clarion Ledger in Jackson, Mississippi.


Rajaraja Chola, who commissioned the temple, called it Rajarajeshwaram (Rajarājeśwaram), literally "the temple of the god of Rajaraja". [12] A later inscription in the Brihannayaki shrine calls the temple's deity Periya Udaiya Nayanar, which appears to be the source of the modern names Brihadisvara and Peruvudaiyar Kovil. [13]

Brihadishwara (IAST: Bṛihádīśvara) is a Sanskrit composite word composed of Brihat which means "big, great, lofty, vast", [14] and Ishvara means "lord, Shiva, supreme being, supreme atman (soul)". [15] [16] The name means the "great lord, big Shiva" temple.

The Brihadeswara Temple is located in the city of Thanjavur, about 350 kilometres (220 mi) southwest of Chennai. The city is connected daily to other major cities by the network of Indian Railways, Tamil Nadu bus services and the National Highways 67, 45C, 226 and 226 Extn. [17] [18] The nearest airport with regular services is Tiruchirappalli International Airport (IATA: TRZ), about 55 kilometres (34 mi) away. [19]

The city and the temple though inland, are at the start of the Cauveri River delta, thus with access to the Bay of Bengal and through it to the Indian Ocean. Along with the temples, the Tamil people completed the first major irrigation network in the 11th century for agriculture, for movement of goods and to control the water flow through the urban center. [20]

A spectrum of Hindu temple styles continued to develop from the 5th to the 9th century over the Chalukya era rule as evidenced in Aihole, Badami and Pattadakal, and then with the Pallava era as witnessed at Mamallapuram and other monuments. Thereafter, between 850 and 1280 CE, Cholas emerged as the dominant dynasty. [2] [21] The early Chola period saw a greater emphasis on securing their geopolitical boundaries and less emphasis on architecture. In the 10th century, within the Chola empire emerged features such as the multifaceted columns with projecting square capitals. This, states George Michell, signaled the start of the new Chola style. [2] [note 1] This South Indian style is most fully realized both in scale and detail in the Brihadeshwara temple built between 1003 and 1010 by the Chola king Rajaraja I. [1] [2]

Additions, renovations and repairs Edit

The main temple along with its gopurams is from the early 11th century. The temple also saw additions, renovations, and repairs over the next 1,000 years. The raids and wars, particularly between Muslim Sultans who controlled Madurai and Hindu kings who controlled Thanjavur caused damage. [8] [note 2] These were repaired by Hindu dynasties that regained control. In some cases, the rulers attempted to renovate the temple with faded paintings, by ordering new murals on top of the older ones. In other cases, they sponsored the addition of shrines. The significant shrines of Kartikeya (Murugan), Parvati (Amman) and Nandi are from the 16th and 17th-century Nayaka era. [8] [25] Similarly the Dakshinamurti shrine was built later. [25] It was well maintained by Marathas of Tanjore

Architecture Edit

The Brihadeshvara temple's plan and development utilizes the axial and symmetrical geometry rules. [26] It is classified as Perunkoil (also called Madakkoil), a big temple built on a higher platform of a natural or man-made mounds. [27] The temple complex is a rectangle that is almost two stacked squares, covering 240.79 metres (790.0 ft) east to west, and 121.92 metres (400.0 ft) north to south. In this space are five main sections: the sanctum with the towering superstructure (sri vimana), the Nandi hall in front (Nandi-mandapam) and in between these the main community hall (mukhamandapam), the great gathering hall (mahamandapam) and the pavilion that connects the great hall with the sanctum (ardhamandapam). [28]

The temple complex integrates a large pillared and covered veranda (prakara) in its spacious courtyard, with a perimeter of about 450 metres (1,480 ft) for circumambulation. Outside this pillared veranda there are two walls of enclosure, the outer one being defensive and added in 1777 CE by the French colonial forces with gun-holes with the temple serving as an arsenal. They made the outer wall high, isolating the temple complex area. On its east end is the original main gopuram or gateway that is barrel vaulted. It is less than half the size of the main temple's vimana. Additional structures were added to the original temple after the 11th century, such as a mandapa in its northeast corner and additional gopurams (gateways) on its perimeters to allow people to enter and leave from multiple locations. [28] [29] Some of the shrines and structures were added during the Pandya, Nayaka, Vijayanagara and Maratha era, before the colonial era started, and these builders respected the original plans and symmetry rules. Inside the original temple courtyard, along with the main sanctum and Nandi-mandapam are two major shrines, one for Kartikeya and for Parvati. The complex has additional smaller shrines. [28] [30] [31]

The Brihadisvara temple continued the Hindu temple traditions of South India by adopting architectural and decorative elements, but its scale significantly exceeded the temples constructed before the 11th century. The Chola era architects and artisans innovated the expertise to scale up and build, particularly with heavy stone and to accomplish the 63.4 metres (208 ft) high towering vimana. [30] [28]

The temple faces east, and once had a water moat around it. This has been filled up. The fortified wall now runs around this moat. The two walls have ornate gateways called the gopurams. These are made from stone and display entablature. The main gateways are on the east side. The first one is called the Keralantakan tiruvasal, which means the "sacred gate of the Keralantakan". The word Keralantakan was the surname of king Rajaraja who built it. About a 100 metres (330 ft) ahead is the inner courtyard gopuram called the Rajarajan tiruvasal. This is more decorated than the Keralantakan tiruvasal, such as with its adhishthanam relief work narrating scenes from the Puranas and other Hindu texts. [28] The inner eastern gopuram leads to a vast courtyard, in which the shrines are all signed to east–west and north-west cardinal directions. The complex can be entered either on one axis through a five-story gopuram or with a second access directly to the huge main quadrangle through a smaller free-standing gopuram. The gopuram of the main entrance is 30 m high, smaller than the vimana. [10]

The main temple-related monuments and the great tower is in the middle of this courtyard. [28] Around the main temple that is dedicated to Shiva, are smaller shrines, most of which are aligned axially. These are dedicated to his consort Parvati, his sons Subrahmanya and Ganesha, Nandi, Varahi, Karuvur deva (the guru of Rajaraja Chola), Chandeshvara and Nataraja. [10] The Nandi mandapam has a monolithic seated bull facing the sanctum. In between them are stairs leading to a columned porch and community gathering hall, then an inner mandapa connecting to the pradakshina patha, or circumambulation path. The Nandi (bull) facing the mukh-mandapam weighs about 25 tonnes. [32] It is made of a single stone and is about 2 m in height, 6 m in length and 2.5 m in width. The image of Nandi is a monolithic one and is one of the largest in the country. [33]

Sanctum and the Sri-vimana Edit

The sanctum is at the center of the western square. It is surrounded by massive walls that are divided into levels by sharply cut sculptures and pilasters providing deep bays and recesses. Each side of the sanctuary has a bay with iconography. [34] [26] The interior of the sanctum sanctorum hosts an image of the primary deity, Shiva, in the form of a huge stone linga. It is called Karuvarai, a Tamil word that means "womb chamber". This space is called garbha griha in other parts of India. Only priests are allowed to enter this inner-most chamber. [35]

In the Dravida style, the sanctum takes the form of a miniature vimana. It has the inner wall together with the outer wall creating a path around the sanctum for circumambulation (pradakshina). The entrance is highly decorated. The inside chamber is the sanctum sanctorum, which houses the brihad linga. [2]

The main Vimana (Shikhara) is a massive 16 storeys tower of which 13 are tapering squares. It dominates the main quadrangle. It sits above a 30.18 metres (99.0 ft) sided square. [34] The tower is elaborately articulated with Pilaster, piers(a raised structure), and attached columns which are placed rhythmically covering every surface of the vimana. [36]

Deities and Natya Sastra dance mudras Edit

The temple is dedicated to Shiva in the form of a huge linga, his abstract aniconic representation. It is 8.7 m (29 ft) high, occupying two storeys of the sanctum. [3] [9] It is one of the largest monolithic linga sculptures in India. [33]

Sculptures on the maha-mandapam walls [38]
North side South side
Bhairava (Shiva) Ganesha
Mahishasuramardini (Durga) Vishnu
Saraswati Gajalakshmi

The Shaivism temple celebrates all major Hindu traditions by including the primary deities of the Vaishnavism and Shaktism tradition in the great mandapa of the main temple. The distribution of the deities is generally symmetric, except for the east entrance side which provide for the door and walkway. In addition to the main deities, each side provides for dvarapalas (guardians), and various other sculptures. The vestibule has three stone sculptures that is intricately carved, and mural paintings. [38] The ground floor level sanctum walls have the following sculptures: [38]

  • East wall: Lingodbhava, standing Shiva, Pashupata-murti, plus two dvarapalas flanking the pathway from ardha-mandapam
  • South wall: Bhikshatana, Virabhadra, Dakshinamurti, Kalantaka, Nataraja [note 3] plus two dvarapalas
  • West wall: Harihara (half Shiva, half Vishnu), Lingodbhava, Chandrashekhara without prabhavali, Chandrashekhara with prabhavali, plus two dvarapalas
  • North wall: Ardhanarishvara (half Shiva, half Parvati), Gangadhara without Parvati, Pashupata-murti, Shiva-alingana-murti, plus two dvarapalas

On the second floor, Shiva's Tripurantaka form in different postures is depicted corresponding to these sculptures. Above these floors, the sri-vimana towers above in thirteen storeys (talas). Above these storeys is a single square block of granite weight 80 tons, and 7.77 metres (25.5 ft) side. On top of this block, at its corners are Nandi pairs each about 1.98 metres (6 ft 6 in) by 1.68 metres (5 ft 6 in) in dimension. Above the center of this granite block rises the griva, the sikhara and the finial (stupi) of Tamil Hindu temple architecture. This stupi is 3.81 metres (12.5 ft) in height, and was originally covered with gold (no longer). The sikhara at the top is cupola-shaped and weighs 25 tons. [38] [39] Each storey of this tower is decorated with kutas and salas. The shrinking squares tower architecture of this temple differs from the tower at the Chola temple at Gangaikondasolisvaram, because this is straight in contrast to the latter which is curvilinear. The temple's sri-vimana magnitude has made it a towering landmark for the city. [38] The upper storey corridor wall of the aditala is carved with 81 of the 108 dance karanas – postures of Natya Sastra. This text is the basis of the Bharathanatyam, the classical dance of Tamil Nadu. The 27 unrepresented karanas are blank blocks of stone, and it is unclear why these were not carved. The 81 postures carved suggest the significance of this classical Indian dance form by early 11th century. [9]

The garbhagriha is square and sits on a plinth. This is moulded and 0.5 metres (1 ft 8 in) thick. It consists of upapitham and adhishthanam, respectively 140 cm and 360 cm thick. [9]

Mandapa Edit

The two mandapa, namely maha-mandapa and mukha-mandapa, are square plan structures axially aligned between the sanctum and the Nandi mandapa. The maha-mandapa has six pillars on each side. [40] This too has artwork. The Vitankar and Rajaraja I bronze are here, but these were added much later. The maha-mandapa is flanked by two giant stone dvarapalas. It is linked to the mukha-mandapa by stairs. The entrance of the mukha-mandapa also has dvarapalas. With the mandapa are eight small shrines for dikpalas, or guardian deities of each direction such as Agni, Indra, Varuna, Kubera and others. These were installed during the rule of Chola king Rajendra I. [40]

Inscriptions indicate that this area also had other iconography from major Hindu traditions during the Chola era, but these are now missing. The original eight shrines included those for Surya (the sun god), Saptamatrikas (seven mothers), Ganesha, Kartikeya, Jyeshtha, Chandra (the moon god), Chandeshvara and Bhairava. [40] Similarly, in the western wall cella was a massive granite Ganesha built during Rajaraja I era, but who is now found in the tiruch-churru-maligai (southern veranda). Of the Shaktism tradition's seven mothers, only Varahi survives in a broken form. Her remnants are now found in a small modern era brick "Varahi shrine" in the southern side of the courtyard. The original version of the others along with their original Chola shrines are missing. [40]

New National SaStr - History

Naturopathy is a system of healthcare with a deep history of traditional philosophies and practices, medically trained practitioners and a breadth of natural treatment options to serve patients.

Naturopathic History

Naturopathy has been part of Germany for centuries. Many of the principles and philosophies of naturopathy originated in Germany and Europe in the 16 th and 17 th century. The original naturopaths – prior to 1900s – from around the world, were trained by European doctors using hydrotherapy, herbal medicine and other traditional forms of healing. Currently, European countries consider their practice of naturopathy as a system of healthcare that has evolved by incorporating the traditional medicine of each country with the naturopathic principles, theories, modalities and traditions that have been codified in North America. Traditional forms of naturopathic teaching and practice are still common in Europe.

North America is considered the home of modern naturopathy, or naturopathic medicine. Most North American schools are government-accredited and all regions within North America are working toward regulation or licensure (with 50% of Canadian provinces and 38% of all states / regions in the USA regulated). There are strong national and regional naturopathic associations, ongoing naturopathic research and specialized groups and journals to support the practice of naturopathic medicine. North America is credited with codifying the naturopathic principles and for contributing some of the established theories and practices that are now used worldwide.

Throughout its history, naturopathy / naturopathic medicine is introduced into a country when a naturopath / naturopathic doctor that has been trained in North America or Europe moves and takes their skills with them. There is a synthesis of the European or North American training with the traditional systems of medicine in their country. For example, naturopathy was introduced to India after a medical doctor was trained by naturopaths in Europe two of the respondents from South East Asia indicated that they were originally trained in the USA.

The World Naturopathic Federation is currently undergoing a research project to clarify and codify the historic roots of naturopathy from around the world.

Naturopathic Principles

Although there has been historically broad discussions on the principles and practice of naturopathic medicine, there was no formal codification process until 1986, when the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians (AANP) formed a committee that consisted of naturopathic doctors Pamela Snider, Jared Zeff and others. These practitioners spent over three years reviewing the historic data and documents and interviewing over 1,000 people. In 1989, a definition of naturopathic medicine and the description of the six naturopathic principles was formally codified and accepted by the two North American national naturopathic associations (American Association of Naturopathic Physicians (AANP) and the Canadian Association of Naturopathic Doctors (CAND)).Based on the 2014/2015 global naturopathic workforce survey these principles appear to have international recognition and acceptance.

The naturopathic principles taught in most countries include:

  • First, Do No Harm (primum non nocere)
  • Healing Power of Nature (vis medicatrixnaturae)
  • Treat the Cause (tollecausam)
  • Treat The Whole Person (tolletotum)
  • Doctor as Teacher (docere)
  • Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
  • Wellness

Naturopathic Theories

There are a number of naturopathic theories practiced around the world including:

  • Humoral Theory
  • Therapeutic Order
  • Emunctories
  • Theory of Complex Systems

Naturopathic Modalities

The naturopathic modalities or therapies used around the world vary by country. Some of the most common naturopathic modalities include:

  • Clinical Nutrition
  • Botanical Medicine (Herbalism)
  • Homeopathic Medicine
  • Traditional Chinese Medicine / Acupuncture
  • Physical Medicine
  • Hydrotherapy – Water Cure
  • Prevention and Lifestyle Counselling
  • Hygiene Therapy
  • Nature Cure

Some naturopathic doctors will have additional training in other natural therapies such as:

  • Ayurvedic Medicine
  • Prescription Rights
  • IV Therapies
  • Chelation Therapy
  • Minor Surgery
  • Colon Therapy

Global Naturopathic Regulation

Naturopathy is practiced in every world region, spanning over eighty countries. Statutory regulation of the naturopathic profession currently exists in jurisdictions in North America, India, Europe and Latin America. To be a full member of the WNF, associations must support and be working toward regulation. They must also support educational accreditation and advancement of educational standards.

Naturopathic Regulatory Process
The statutory regulation of naturopathy, like all professionals, is strongly correlated with educational standards and is influenced by the political landscape in each country and the regulation of other traditional and complementary systems of medicine in the region. Every country or region that has regulation is supported by a professional naturopathic association. For those countries / regions that do not yet have regulation, the WNF encourages that professional naturopathic associations engage in self-governance activities that protect the public as they work towards regulation.

Overview of Statutory Naturopathic Regulation Globally
The regulation of naturopathic practitioners is diverse. It covers Naturopathic Technicians, Licensed Naturopaths, Diploma in Naturopathy and Naturopathic Doctors. Naturopathic practitioners in Europe are referred to as Heilpraktiker or Naturopaths. In North America and India, naturopathic practitioners are regulated as Naturopathic Doctors and/or Naturopathic Physicians. In Latin America, regulation exists for both Naturopathic Technicians and Doctors of Naturopathy. This difference reflects the educational differences, yet the foundational philosophy and principles are the same.



The 30,000-year-old paleolithic and neolithic cave paintings at the UNESCO world heritage site at Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh shows a type of dance. [1] Mesolithic and chalcolithic cave art of Bhimbhetka illustrates very simple musical instruments such as rock drums, and other simple instruments. [2]


Chalcolithic era (4000 BCE onward) narrow bar shaped polished stone celts like music instruments, one of the earlier musical instrument in India, were excavated at Sankarjang in the Angul district of Odisha. [3] There is historical evidence in the form of sculptural evidence, i.e. musical instruments, singing and dancing postures of damsels in the Ranigumpha Caves in Khandagiri and Udayagiri at Bhubaneswar.

Indus River valley Civilization

Dancing Girl sculpture (2500 BCE) was found from the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) site. [4] [5] [6] [7] There are IVC-era paintings on pottery of a man with a dhol hanging from his neck and a woman holding a drum under her left arm. [8]

Vedic and ancient era

Vedas (c. 1500 – c. 800 BCE Vedic period) [9] [10] [11] [12] document rituals with performing arts and play. [13] [14] For example, Shatapatha Brahmana (

800–700 BCE) has verses in chapter 13.2 written in the form of a play between two actors. [13] Tala or taal is an ancient music concept traceable to Vedic era texts of Hinduism, such as the Samaveda and methods for singing the Vedic hymns. [15] [16] [17] Smriti (500 BCE to 100 BCE ) post-vedic Hindu texts [18] [19] [20] include Valmiki's Ramayana (500 BCE to 100 BCE) which mentions dance and music (dance by Apsaras such as Urvashi, Rambha, Menaka, Tilottama Panchāpsaras, and Ravana's wives excelling in nrityageeta or "singing and dancing" and nritavaditra or "playing musical instruments"), music and singing by Gandharvas, several string instruments (vina, tantri, bīn, vipanci and vallaki similar to veena), wind instruments (shankha, venu and venugana – likely a mouth organ made by tying several flutes together), raga (including kaushika such as raag kaushik dhwani), vocal registers (seven svara or sur, ana or ekashurti drag note, murchana the regulated rise and fall of voice in matra and tripramana three-fold teen taal laya such as drut or quick, madhya or middle, and vilambit or slow), poetry recitation in Bala Kanda and also in Uttara Kanda by Luv and Kusha in marga style. [21]

Starting from the earliest known work Tholkappiyam (500 BCE), there are several references to music and Panns in the ancient pre-Sangam and Sangam literature starting from the earliest known work Tholkappiyam (500 BCE). Among Sangam literature, Mathuraikkanci refers to women singing sevvazhi pann to invoke the mercy of God during childbirth. In Tolkappiyam, the five landscapes of the Sangam literature had each an associated Pann, each describing the mood of the song associated with that landscape. Among the numerous panns that find mention in the ancient Tamil literature are, Ambal Pann, which is suitable to be played on the flute, sevvazhi pann on the Yazh (lute), Nottiram and Sevvazhi expressing pathos, the captivating Kurinji pann and the invigorating Murudappann. Pann(Tamil: பண் ) is the melodic mode used by the Tamil people in their music since the ancient times. The ancient panns over centuries evolved first into a pentatonic scale and later into the seven note Carnatic Sargam. But from the earliest times, Tamil Music is heptatonic and known as Ezhisai (ஏழிசை). [22]

sanskrit saint-poet Jayadeva, who was the great composer and illustrious master of classical music, shaped Odra-Magadhi style music and had great influence on Odissi Sangita. [23] [24]

Śārṅgadeva composed Sangita-Ratnakara, one of the most important Sanskrit musicological texts from India, [25] [26] which is regarded as the definitive text in both Hindustani music and Carnatic music traditions of Indian classical music. [27] [28]

Assamese poet Madhava Kandali, writer of Saptakanda Ramayana, lists several instruments in his version of "Ramayana", such as mardala, khumuchi, bhemachi, dagar, gratal, ramtal, tabal, jhajhar, jinjiri, bheri mahari, tokari, dosari, kendara, dotara, vina, rudra-vipanchi, etc. (meaning that these instruments existed since his time in 14th century or earlier). [29] The Indian system of notation is perhaps the world's oldest and most elaborate. [30]

Medieval era

In early 14th century under the Khiljis, there were concerts and competitions between Hindustani and Carnatic musicians. [31]

Twentieth century

In the early 1960s Jazz pioneers such as John Coltrane and George Harrison collaborated with Indian instrumentalists and started to use Indian instruments such as sitar in their songs. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, rock and roll fusions with Indian music were well known throughout Europe and North America. In the late 1980s, Indian-British artists fused Indian and Western traditions to make the Asian Underground. In the new millennium, American hip-hop has featured Indian filmi and bhangra. Mainstream hip-hop artists have sampled songs from Bollywood movies and have collaborated with Indian artists, such as Timbaland's "Indian Flute"

The two main traditions of Indian classical music are Carnatic music, which is practised predominantly in the peninsular (southern) regions, and Hindustani music, which is found in the northern, eastern and central regions. The basic concepts of this music includes Shruti (microtones), Swaras (notes), Alankar (ornamentations), Raga (melodies improvised from basic grammars), and Tala (rhythmic patterns used in percussion). Its tonal system divides the octave into 22 segments called Shrutis, not all equal but each roughly equal to a quarter of a whole tone of the Western music. Both the classical music are standing on the fundamentals of The seven notes of Indian Classical music. These seven notes are also called as Sapta svara or Sapta Sur. These seven svaras are Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha and Ni respectively. These Sapta Svaras are spelt as Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha and Ni, but these are shortforms of Shadja (षड्ज), Rishabha (ऋषभ), Gandhara (गान्धार), Madhyama (मध्यम), Panchama (पंचम), Dhaivata (धैवत) and Nishada (निषाद) respectively. [33] These are also equivalent to Do, Re, Mi, Fa, So, La, Ti. Only these seven svaras built up the Hindustani classical music and the Carnatic classical music. These seven svaras are the fundamentals of a raga. This seven svaras without any variations in them, are called as Shuddha svaras. Variations in these svaras cause them to be Komal and Tivra svaras. All the other svaras except Sadja(Sa) and Pancham (Pa) can be Komal or Tivra svaras but Sa and Pa are always Shuddha svaras. And hence svaras Sa and Pa are called Achal Svaras, since these svaras don't move from their original position while svaras Ra, Ga, Ma, Dha, Ni are called Chal Svaras, since these svaras move from their original position.

Sangeet Natak Academy recognizes eight classical dance and music forms, namely Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kuchipudi, Odissi, Kathakali, Sattriya, Manipuri and Mohiniyattam. [34] Additionally, India's Ministry of Culture also includes Chhau in its classical list.

Carnatic music

Carnatic music can be traced to the 14th - 15th centuries AD and thereafter. It originated in South India during the rule of Vijayanagar Empire through the Keerthanas composed by Purandara Dasa. Like Hindustani music, it is melodic, with improvised variations, but tends to have more fixed compositions. It consists of a composition with improvised embellishments added to the piece in the forms of Raga Alapana, Kalpanaswaram, Neraval and, in the case of more advanced students, Ragam Thanam Pallavi. The main emphasis is on the vocals as most compositions are written to be sung, and even when played on instruments, they are meant to be performed in a singing style (known as gāyaki). Around 300 ragams are in use today. Annamayya is the first known composer in Carnatic music. He is widely regarded as the Andhra Pada kavitā Pitāmaha (Godfather of Telugu song-writing). Purandara Dasa is considered the father of Carnatic music, while the later musicians Tyagaraja, Shyama Shastry and Muthuswami Dikshitar are considered the trinity of Carnatic music. [ citation needed ]

Every December, the city of Chennai in India has its eight-week-long Music Season, which is the world's largest cultural event. [35]

Carnatic music has served as the foundation for most music in South India, including folk music, festival music and has also extended its influence to film music in the past 100–150 years or so.

Hindustani music

The tradition of Hindustani music dates back to Vedic times where the hymns in the Sama Veda, an ancient religious text, were sung as Samagana and not chanted. It diverged from Carnatic music around the 13th–14th centuries CE, primarily due to Islamic influences. [ citation needed ] Developing a strong and diverse tradition over several centuries, it has contemporary traditions established primarily in India but also in Pakistan and Bangladesh. In contrast to Carnatic music, the other main Indian classical music tradition originating from the South, Hindustani music was not only influenced by ancient Hindu musical traditions, historical Vedic philosophy and native Indian sounds but also enriched by the Persian performance practices of the Mughals. Classical genres are dhrupad, dhamar, khyal, tarana and sadra, and there are also several semi-classical forms.

The root of the name C(K)arnatic music is derived from Sanskrit. Karnam means ears and Atakam means that which is sweet or that which lingers on.

Light classical music

There are many types of music which comes under the category of light classical or semi-classical. Some of the forms are Thumri, Dadra, Bhajan, Ghazal, Chaiti, Kajri, Tappa, Natya Sangeet and Qawwali. These forms place emphasis on explicitly seeking emotion from the audience, as opposed to the classical forms.

Tamang Selo

This is a musical genre of the Tamang people and popular amongst the Nepali speaking community in West Bengal, Sikkim, India and around the world. It is accompanied by Tamang instruments, the Madal, Damphu and Tungna, although nowadays musicians have taken to modern instruments. A Tamang Selo can be catchy and lively or slow and melodious, and is usually sung to convey sorrow, love, happiness or day-to-day incidents and stories of folklore. [36]

Hira Devi Waiba is hailed as the pioneer of Nepali folk songs and Tamang Selo. Her song 'Chura ta Hoina Astura' (चुरा त होइन अस्तुरा) is said to be the first Tamang Selo ever recorded. She has sung nearly 300 songs through her musical career spanning 40 years. [37] [38] After Waiba's death in 2011, her son Satya Aditya Waiba (producer/manager) and Navneet Aditya Waiba (singer) collaborated and re-recorded her most iconic songs and released an album titled Ama Lai Shraddhanjali (आमालाई श्रद्धाञ्जली-Tribute to Mother). [39] [40] [41] The duo are the only individuals in the Nepali folk music genre who produce authentic traditional Nepali folk songs without adulteration or modernisation. [42] [43]

Bhangra and Giddha

Bhangra (Punjabi: ਭੰਗੜਾ) is a form of dance-oriented folk music of Punjab. The present musical

style is derived from non-traditional musical accompaniment to the riffs of Punjab called by the same name. The female dance of Punjab region is known as Giddha (Punjabi: ਗਿੱਧਾ).

Bihu and Borgeet

Bihu (Assamese: বিহু ) is the festival of New Year of Assam falling on mid-April. This is a festival of nature and mother earth where the first day is for the cows and buffaloes. The second day of the festival is for the man. Bihu dances and songs accompanied by traditional drums and wind instruments are an essential part of this festival. Bihu songs are energetic and with beats to welcome the festive spring. Assamese drums (dhol), Pepa(usually made from buffalo horn), Gogona are major instruments used. [44] [45]

Borgeets (Assamese: বৰগীত ) are lyrical songs that are set to specific ragas but not necessarily to any tala. These songs, composed by Srimanta Sankardeva and Madhavdeva in the 15th–16th centuries, are used to begin prayer services in monasteries, e.g. Satra and Namghar associated with the Ekasarana Dharma and they also belong to the repertoire of Music of Assam outside the religious context. They are a lyrical strain that express the religious sentiments of the poets reacting to different situations, and differ from other lyrics associated with the Ekasarana Dharma.

Prominent instruments used in borgeets are Negera,Taal, Khols etc. [46]


Dandiya or Raas is a form of Gujarati cultural dance that is performed with sticks. The present musical style is derived from the traditional musical accompaniment to the folk dance. It is practiced mainly in the state of Gujarat. There is also another type of dance and music associated with Dandiya/Raas called Garba.


Gaana is a rap-like "collection of rhythms, beats and sensibilities native to the Dalits of Chennai." [47] [48] It evolved over the past two centuries, combining influences from the siddhars (tantric adepts) of ancient Tamilakam, Tamil Sufi saints, and more. [47] Gaana songs are performed at weddings, stage shows, political rallies, and funerals. Performers sing about a wide range of topics, but the essence of gaana is said to be "angst and melancholy" based in life's struggles. [47] In the past few decades, the genre has entered the music of the mainstream Tamil film industry and gained popularity. [47] [49] Contemporary gaana bands like The Casteless Collective are bringing the genre to new audiences while using it for social activism, especially against caste discrimination. [47]


Haryana folk music has two main forms: classical folk music of Haryana and desi folk music of Haryana (country music of Haryana). [50] They take the form of ballads and pangs of parting of lovers, valor and bravery, harvest and happiness. [51] Haryana is rich in musical tradition and even places have been named after ragas, for example Charkhi Dadri district has many villages named as Nandyam, Sarangpur, Bilawala, Brindabana, Todi, Asaveri, Jaisri, Malakoshna, Hindola, Bhairvi and Gopi Kalyana. [50] [52]


Himachal's folk music varies according to the event or the festival. One of the most popular style of music is Nati Music, where nati being the traditional dance that is done on the song. Nati Music is usually celebratory, and done in fairs or other occasions such as marriages.

Jhumair and Domkach

Jhumair and Domkach are Nagpuri folk music. The musical instruments used in folk music and dance are Dhol, Mandar, Bansi, Nagara, Dhak, Shehnai, Khartal, Narsinga etc. [53] [54]


Lavani comes from the word Lavanya which means "beauty". This is one of the most popular forms of dance and music that is practiced all over Maharashtra. It has, in fact, become a necessary part of the Maharashtrian folk dance performances. Traditionally, the songs are sung by female artists, but male artists may occasionally sing Lavanis. The dance format associated with Lavani is known as Tamasha. Lavani is a combination of traditional song and dance, which particularly performed to the enchanting beats of 'Dholaki', a drum-like instrument. The dance is performed by attractive women wearing nine-yard saris. They are sung in a quick tempo. Lavani originated in the arid region of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.


Music of Manipur and Manipuri dance are heritage of Manipuri people. According to tradition of the Manipuri people in the Himalayan foothills and valleys connecting India to Burma, they are the Gandharvas (celestial musicians and dancers) in the Vedic texts, [55] and historic texts of Manipuri people calls the region as Gandharva-desa. [56] The Vedic Usha, the goddess of the dawn, is a cultural motif for Manipuri women, and in the Indian tradition, it was Usha who created and taught the art of feminine dance to girls. [56] This oral tradition of women's dance is celebrated as Chingkheirol in the Manipuri tradition. [56]

The ancient Sanskrit texts such as the Mahabharata epic mentions Manipur, where Arjuna meets and falls in love with Chitragada. [55] Dance is called Jagoi in a major Meitei language of the region and it traces a long tradition in Manipur. Lai Haraoba dance likely has ancient roots and shares many similarities with dance postures of Nataraja and his legendary disciple called Tandu (locally called Tangkhu). [56] [55] Similarly, as does the dance related to commoner Khamba and princess Thoibi – who perform as pan-Indian Shiva and Parvati, in the legendary tragic love story of Khamba-Thoibi found in the Manipuri epic Moirang Parba. [55] [56] [57]

Marfa music

Hadrani Marfa, or simply Marfa music, introduced during 18th century in Hyderabad State by the East African Siddi community from Afro-Arab music of Hadhramawt in Yemen, is a form of celebratory rhythmic music and dance among the Hyderabadi Muslims, played with high tempo using Marfa instrument, daff, Dhol, sticks, [58] [59] steel pots and wooden strips called thapi. [60]

Mizo Music originated when couplets were developed during the settlement of Thantlang in Burma between 1300 and 1400 CE, and folk songs developed during this period were dar hla (songs on gong) Bawh hla (War chants), Hlado (Chants of hunting) Nauawih hla (Cradle songs) A greater development of songs can be seen from the settlement of Lentlang in Burma, estimated between late 15th to 17th Century CE. [61] The Mizo occupied the present Mizoram from the late 17th century. The pre-colonial period, that is from the 18th to 19th century was another important era in the history of Mizo folk literature. Prior to the annexation by the British Government, the Mizo occupied the present Mizoram for two centuries. In comparison with the folk songs of Thantlang and Lentlang settlement, the songs of this period are more developed in its number, form and contents. The languages are more polished and the flows also better. Most of the songs of this period are named after the composers.


Jayadeva, the 12th century sanskrit saint-poet, the great composer and illustrious master of classical music, has immense contribution to Odissi music. During his time Odra-Magadhi style music got shaped and achieved its classical status. He indicated the classical ragas prevailing at that time in which these were to be sung. Prior to that there was the tradition of Chhanda which was simple in musical outline. From the 16th century onwards, treatises on music [23] [24] were Sangitamava Chandrika, Gita Prakasha, Sangita Kalalata and Natya Manorama. A couple of treatise namely, Sangita Sarani and Sangi Narayana, were also written in the early path of the 19th century.

Odissi Sangita comprises four classes of music namely Dhruvapada, Chitrapada, Chitrakala and Panchal, described in the ancient oriya music texts. The chief Odissi and Shokabaradi. Odissi Sangita (music) is a synthesis of four classes of music, i.e. Dhruvapada, Chitrapada, Chitrakala and Panchal, described in the above-mentioned texts.

The great exponents [23] [24] of Odissi music in modern times are the Late Singhari Shyamasundara Kar, Markandeya Mahapatra, Kashinath Pujapanda, Balakrushna Das, Gopal Chandra Panda, Ramhari Das, Bhubaneswari Misra, Shymamani Devi and Sunanda Patnaik, who have achieved eminence in classical music.

Rabindra Sangeet (music of Bengal)

Rabindra Sangeet (Bengali: রবীন্দ্রসঙ্গীত Robindro Shonggit, Bengali pronunciation: [ɾobindɾo ʃoŋɡit] ), also known as Tagore songs, are songs written and composed by Rabindranath Tagore. They have distinctive characteristics in the music of Bengal, popular in India and Bangladesh. [62] "Sangeet" means music, "Rabindra Sangeet" means music (or more aptly songs) of Rabindra.

Tagore wrote some 2,230 songs in Bengali, now known as Rabindra Sangeet, using classical music and traditional folk music as sources. [63] [64]

Tagore wrote national anthems of India and Bangladesh, and influenced the national anthem of Sri Lanka.


Rajasthan has a very diverse cultural collection of musician castes, including Langas, Sapera, Bhopa, Jogi and Manganiyar (lit. "the ones who ask/beg"). Rajasthan Diary quotes it as a soulful, full-throated music with harmonious diversity. The melodies of Rajasthan come from a variety of instruments. The stringed variety includes the Sarangi, Ravanahatha, Kamayacha, Morsing and Ektara. Percussion instruments come in all shapes and sizes from the huge Nagaras and Dhols to the tiny Damrus. The Daf and Chang are a favorite of Holi (the festival of colours) revelers. Flutes and bagpipers come in local flavors such as Shehnai, Poongi, Algoza, Tarpi, Been and Bankia.

Rajasthani music is derived from a combination of string instruments, percussion instruments and wind instruments accompanied by renditions of folk singers. It enjoys a respectable presence in Bollywood music as well.

Sufi folk rock / Sufi rock

Sufi folk rock contains elements of modern hard rock and traditional folk music with Sufi poetry. While it was pioneered by bands like Junoon in Pakistan it became very popular, especially in north India. In 2005, Rabbi Shergill released a Sufi rock song called "Bulla Ki Jaana", which became a chart-topper in India and Pakistan. More recently, the Sufi folk rock song "Bulleya" from the 2016 film Ae Dil Hai Mushkil became a mammoth hit. [ citation needed ]


Uttarakhandi folk music had its root in the lap of nature and the hilly terrain of the region. Common themes in the folk music of Uttarakhand are the beauty of nature, various seasons, festivals, religious traditions, cultural practices, folk stories, historical characters, and the bravery of ancestors. The folk songs of Uttarakhand are a reflection of the cultural heritage and the way people live their lives in the Himalayas. Musical instruments used in Uttarakhand music include the Dhol, Damoun, Hudka, Turri, Ransingha, Dholki, Daur, Thali, Bhankora and Masakbhaja. Tabla and Harmonium are also sometimes used, especially in recorded folk music from the 1960s onwards. Generic Indian and global musical instruments have been incorporated in modern popular folks by singers like Mohan Upreti, Narendra Singh Negi, Gopal Babu Goswami, and Chandra Singh Rahi. [ citation needed ]

Dance music

Dance music, more popularly called "DJ music", is mostly played at nightclubs, parties, weddings and other celebrations. It is more popular among youths. It is mostly based on the Indian movie music as well as the Indian pop music, both of which tend to borrow and modernise the classical and folk dance songs with modern instruments and other innovations.

Movie music

The biggest form of Indian popular music is filmi, or songs from Indian films, it makes up 72% of the music sales in India. [65] The film industry of India supported music by according reverence to classical music while utilising the western orchestration to support Indian melodies. Music composers, like R. D. Burman, Shankar Jaikishan, S. D. Burman, Laxmikant–Pyarelal, Madan Mohan, Bhupen Hazarika, Naushad Ali, O. P. Nayyar, Hemant Kumar, C. Ramchandra, Salil Chowdhury, Kalyanji Anandji, Ilaiyaraaja, A. R. Rahman, Jatin Lalit, Anu Malik, Nadeem-Shravan, Harris Jayaraj, Himesh Reshammiya, Vidyasagar, Shankar Ehsaan Loy, Salim-Sulaiman, Pritam, M.S. Viswanathan, K. V. Mahadevan, Ghantasala and S. D. Batish employed the principles of harmony while retaining classical and folk flavor. Reputed names in the domain of Indian classical music like Ravi Shankar, Vilayat Khan, Ali Akbar Khan and Ram Narayan have also composed music for films. Traditionally, in Indian films, the voice for the songs is not provided by the actors, they are provided by the professional playback singers, to sound more developed, melodious and soulful, while actors lipsynch on the screen. In the past, only a handful of singers provided the voice in films. These include Kishore Kumar, K. J. Yesudas, Mohammed Rafi, Mukesh, S.P. Balasubrahmanyam, T.M. Soundararajan, Hemant Kumar, Manna Dey, P. Susheela, Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhonsle, K.S. Chitra, Geeta Dutt, S. Janaki, Shamshad Begum, Suraiya, Noorjahan and Suman Kalyanpur. Recent playback singers include Udit Narayan, Kumar Sanu, Kailash Kher, Alisha Chinai, KK, Shaan, SPB Charan, Madhushree, Shreya Ghoshal, Nihira Joshi, Kavita Krishnamurthy, Hariharan (singer), Ilaiyaraaja, A.R. Rahman, Sonu Nigam, Sukhwinder Singh, Kunal Ganjawala, Anu Malik, Sunidhi Chauhan, Anushka Manchanda, Raja Hasan, Arijit Singh and Alka Yagnik. Rock bands like Indus Creed, Indian Ocean, Silk Route and Euphoria have gained mass appeal with the advent of cable music television.

Pop music

Indian pop music is based on an amalgamation of Indian folk and classical music, and modern beats from different parts of the world. Pop music really started in the South Asian region with the playback singer Ahmed Rushdi's song ‘Ko Ko Korina’ in 1966, followed initially by Mohammad Rafi in the late 1960s and then by Kishore Kumar in the early 1970s. [66]

After that, much of Indian Pop music comes from the Indian Film Industry, and until the 1990s, few singers like Usha Uthup, Sharon Prabhakar, and Peenaz Masani outside it were popular. Since then, pop singers in the latter group have included Daler Mehndi, Baba Sehgal, Alisha Chinai, KK, Shantanu Mukherjee a.k.a. Shaan, Sagarika, Colonial Cousins (Hariharan, Lesle Lewis), Lucky Ali, and Sonu Nigam, and music composers like Zila Khan or Jawahar Wattal, who made top selling albums with, Daler Mehndi, Shubha Mudgal, Baba Sehgal, Shweta Shetty and Hans Raj Hans. [67]

Recently, Indian pop has taken an interesting turn with the "remixing" of songs from past Indian movie songs, new beats being added to them.

Patriotic music

Patriotic feelings have been instigated within Indians through music since the era of the freedom struggle. Jana Gana Mana, the national anthem of India by Rabindranath Tagore, is largely credited [69] [70] for uniting India through music and Vande Mataram by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay as the national song of India. Patriotic songs were also written in many regional languages such as Biswo Bizoyi No Zuwan in Assamese. Post-independence songs such as Aye mere watan ke logo, Mile Sur Mera Tumhara, Ab Tumhare Hawale Watan Saathiyo, Maa Tujhe Salaam by A.R.Rahman have been responsible for consolidating feelings of national integration and unity in diversity.

Western music adoption in India

Western world's music has been adopted in India, by creating fusion music in India which in turn have enriched and created global genres of western music.

Goa trance

Goa trance, an electronic music style that originated during the late 1980s in Goa in India, [71] has funky, drone-like basslines, similar to the techno minimalism of 21st century psytrance. Psychedelic trance developed from Goa trance. [72] In late 1960s and early 1970s, Goa became popular as a hippie capital, which resulted in evolution of Goa trance throughout the 1980s by mixing the spiritual culture of India with western musical elements of industrial music, new beat and electronic body music (EBM), and the actual Goa trance style became established by the early 1990s. [71] [73]

Jazz and blues

Jazz in India was first performed regularly in the metropoles Calcutta and Bombay in the early or middle 1920s. [74] [75] From the 1930s to the 1950s is called as the golden age of jazz in India, when jazz musicians like Leon Abbey, Crickett Smith, Creighton Thompson, Ken Mac, Roy Butler, Teddy Weatherford (who recorded with Louis Armstrong), and Rudy Jackson who toured India to avoid the racial discrimination they faced in the United States. [76] [77] In the 1930s, jazz musicians played in the nightclubs of Bombay, such as at the Taj Mahal hotel ballroom, many of these musicians were Goans most whom also worked in the Bollywood film industry and were responsible for the introduction of genres like jazz and swing to Hindi film music. [78]

Indian blues is less prevalent in India than jazz. Interest in the blues in India has only been incidental due to the shared ancestry with jazz.

Rock and metal music

Indian rock

The rock music scene in India is small compared to the filmi or fusion musicality scenes. Rock music in India has its origins in the 1960s when international stars such as the Beatles visited India and brought their music with them. These artists' collaboration with Indian musicians such as Ravi Shankar and Zakir Hussain have led to the development of raga rock. International shortwave radio stations such as The Voice of America, BBC, and Radio Ceylon played a major part in bringing Western pop, folk, and rock music to the masses. Indian rock bands began to gain prominence only much later, around the late 1980s.

It was around this time that the rock band Indus Creed formerly known as The Rock Machine got itself noticed on the international stage with hits like Rock N Roll Renegade. Other bands quickly followed. With the introduction of MTV in the early 1990s, Indians began to be exposed to various forms of rock such as grunge and speed metal, impacting the national scene. The cities of the North Eastern Region, mainly Guwahati and Shillong, Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore have emerged as major melting pots for rock and metal enthusiasts. Bangalore has been the hub for rock and metal movement in India. Some prominent bands include Nicotine, Voodoo Child, Indian Ocean, Kryptos, Thermal and a Quarter, Demonic Resurrection, Motherjane, Avial, and Parikrama. Rock-specific labels such as DogmaTone Records and Eastern Fare Music Foundation have since emerged, supporting Indian rock acts.

From Central India, Nicotine, an Indore-based metal band, has been credited with pioneering metal music in the region. [79] [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [ excessive citations ]

Raga rock

Raga rock is rock or pop music with a heavy Indian influence, either in its construction, its timbre, or its use of instrumentation, such as the sitar and tabla. Raga and other forms of classical Indian music began to influence many rock groups during the 1960s most famously the Beatles. The first traces of "raga rock" can be heard on songs such as "See My Friends" by the Kinks and the Yardbirds' "Heart Full of Soul", released the previous month, featured a sitar-like riff by guitarist Jeff Beck. [89] [90] The Beatles song "Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)", which first appeared on the band's 1965 album Rubber Soul, was the first western pop song to actually incorporate the sitar (played by lead guitarist George Harrison). [90] [91] The Byrds' March 1966 single "Eight Miles High" and its B-side "Why" were also influential in originating the musical subgenre. Indeed, the term "raga rock" was coined by The Byrds' publicist in the press releases for the single and was first used in print by journalist Sally Kempton in her review of "Eight Miles High" for The Village Voice. [92] [93] George Harrison's interest in Indian music, popularised the genre in the mid-1960s with songs such as "Love You To", "Tomorrow Never Knows" (credited to Lennon-McCartney), "Within You Without You" and "The Inner Light". [94] [95] [96] The rock acts of the sixties both in turn influenced British and American groups and Indian acts to develop a later form of Indian rock.

Western classical music

The following of Western classical music in India is almost entirely non-existent. It is mainly patronised by the Indian Zoroastrian community, Protestant Christian community in Chennai and Bangalore and small esoteric groups with historical exposure to Western classical music. Western Music education is also rare in India. Western keyboard, drums and guitar instruction being an exception as it has found some interest mainly in an effort to create musicians to service contemporary popular Indian music. Despite more than a century of exposure to Western classical music and two centuries of British colonialism, classical music in India has never gained more than 'fringe' popularity. [ citation needed ] .

However, Western classical music education has improved with the help of certain institutions in India, including KM Music Conservatory (founded by Oscar-winning Composer A.R.Rahman), Calcutta School of Music, Eastern Fare Music Foundation, [97] In 1930, Mehli Mehta set up the Bombay Symphony Orchestra. [98] His son Zubin Mehta has enjoyed a long international conducting career. The Bombay Chamber Orchestra [99] (BCO) was founded in 1962. Delhi School of Music, Delhi Music Academy, Guitarmonk and others supporting Western classical music. [ citation needed ] . In 2006, the Symphony Orchestra of India was founded, housed at the NCPA in Mumbai. It is today the only professional symphony orchestra in India and presents two concert seasons per year, with world-renowned conductors and soloists.

As per UN, the Indian diaspora is world's largest overseas diaspora with 17.5 million Indian-origin international migrants across the world, [100] who help spread the global soft power of India. [101]

Influence on other genres

Ancient influence on Southeast Asian music genre

With expansion of Indosphere cultural influence of Greater India, [103] through transmission of Hinduism in Southeast Asia [104] [105] [106] and the Silk Road transmission of Buddhism [107] [108] leading to Indianization of Southeast Asia through formation of non-Indian southeast Asian native Indianized kingdoms [109] which adopted sanskritized language [110] and other Indian elements [111] such as the honorific titles, naming of people, naming of places, mottos of organisations and educational institutes as well as adoption of Indian architecture, martial arts, Indian music and dance, traditional Indian clothing, and Indian cuisine, a process which has also been aided by the ongoing historic expansion of Indian diaspora. [101]

Indonesian and Malay music

In Indonesian and Malaysian music, the Dangdut a genre of folk music is partly derived and fused from Hindustani music. It is a very popular because of its melodious instrumentation and vocals. Dangdut features a tabla and gendang beat. [112] [113] Indonesians dance in somewhat similar to the ghoomar while listening to dangdut music, but in a much slower version.

Thai music

Thai literature and drama draws great inspiration from Indian arts and Hindu legends. Epic of Ramayana is as popular in Thailand as the Ramakien. Two of the most popular classical thai dances the Khon, performed by men wearing ferocious masks, and the Lakhon (Lakhon nai, Lakhon chatri and Lakhon nok), performed by women who play both male and female roles draws inspiration primarily from the Ramakien. Percussion instruments and Piphat, a type of woodwind accompany the dance. [114] Nang talung, a Thai shadow play inspired by South Indian Bommalattam, has shadows made from the pieces of cow or water buffalo hide cut to represent human figures with movable arms and legs are thrown on a screen for the entertainment of spectators.

  • Filipino epics and chants inspired by the Indian Hindu religious epics Ramayana and Mahabharta.
      of Ifugao people of the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon island of Philippines, 11 Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2001 and formally inscribed as a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2008. See also Hudhud – the Ifugao epic. (English: "The Life of Lam-ang" ) is an epic poem of the Ilocano people from the Ilocos region. epic of Bikol region of southeast Luzon.
  • "Aginid, Bayok sa atong Tawarik", a Bisayan epic of Cebu.
  • Bayok, an epic of Marano people of northwestern Mindanao .
    • , native Filipino guitar of Maranao, Manobo and Maguindanao people, is influenced by the Indian classical music concepts of melody and scale.

    Fusion with traditional music of other nations

    Sometimes, the music of India is fuse with the native traditional music of other countries. For example, Delhi 2 Dublin, a band based in Canada, is known for fusing Indian and Irish music, and Bhangraton is a fusion of Bhangra music with reggaeton. [115]

    Western world music

    Film music

    Indian film composer A. R. Rahman wrote the music for Andrew Lloyd Webber's Bombay Dreams, and a musical version of Hum Aapke Hain Koun was staged in London's West End. The Bollywood sports film Lagaan (2001) was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, and two other Bollywood films (2002's Devdas and 2006's Rang De Basanti) were nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Film Not in the English Language.

    Danny Boyle's Slumdog Millionaire (2008) was inspired by Bollywood films. [116] [117]

    Hip hop and reggae

    Bhangraton is a fusion of Bhangra music with reggaeton, which itself is a fusion of hip hop, reggae, and traditional Latin American music. [115]

    In early 1960s Jazz pioneers such as John Coltrane—who recorded a composition entitled 'India' during the November 1961 sessions for his album Live at the Village Vanguard (the track was not released until 1963 on Coltrane's album Impressions)—also embraced this fusion. George Harrison (of the Beatles) played the sitar on the song "Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)" in 1965, which sparked interest from Shankar, who subsequently took Harrison as his apprentice. Jazz innovator Miles Davis recorded and performed with musicians like Khalil Balakrishna, Bihari Sharma, and Badal Roy in his post-1968 electric ensembles. Virtuoso jazz guitarist John McLaughlin spent several years in Madurai learning Carnatic music and incorporated it into many of his acts including Shakti which featured prominent Indian musicians. Other Western artists such as the Grateful Dead, Incredible String Band, the Rolling Stones, the Move and Traffic soon incorporated Indian influences and instruments, and added Indian performers. Legendary Grateful Dead frontman Jerry Garcia joined guitarist Sanjay Mishra on his classic CD "Blue Incantation" (1995). Mishra also wrote an original score for French Director Eric Heumann for his film Port Djema (1996) which won best score at Hamptons film festival and The Golden Bear at Berlin. in 2000 he recorded Rescue with drummer Dennis Chambers (Carlos Santana, John McLaughlin et al.) and in 2006 Chateau Benares with guests DJ Logic and Keller Williams (guitar and bass).

    Musical film

    Since early 2000s, Bollywood began influencing musical films in the Western world and was instrumental role in reviving the American musical film. Baz Luhrmann said that his musical film, Moulin Rouge! (2001), was inspired by Bollywood musicals [118] the film incorporated a Bollywood-style dance scene with a song from the film China Gate. The critical and financial success of Moulin Rouge! began a renaissance of Western musical films such as Chicago, Rent, and Dreamgirls. [119]

    Psychedelic and trance music
    Rock and roll

    In the late 1970s and early 1980s, rock and roll fusions with Indian music were well known throughout Europe and North America. Ali Akbar Khan's 1955 performance in the United States was perhaps the beginning of this trend. In 1985, a beat-oriented, Raga Rock hybrid called Sitar Power by Ashwin Batish reintroduced sitar in western nations. Sitar Power drew the attention of a number of record labels and was snapped up by Shanachie Records of New Jersey to head their World Beat Ethno Pop division.


    The influence of filmi may be seen in popular music worldwide. Technopop pioneers Haruomi Hosono and Ryuichi Sakamoto of the Yellow Magic Orchestra produced a 1978 electronic album, Cochin Moon, based on an experimental fusion of electronic music and Bollywood-inspired Indian music. [120] Truth Hurts' 2002 song "Addictive", produced by DJ Quik and Dr. Dre, was taken from Lata Mangeshkar's "Thoda Resham Lagta Hai" in Jyoti (1981). [121] The Black Eyed Peas' Grammy Award winning 2005 song "Don't Phunk with My Heart" was inspired by two 1970s Bollywood songs: "Ye Mera Dil Yaar Ka Diwana" from Don (1978) and "Ae Nujawan Hai Sub" from Apradh (1972). [122] Both songs were composed by Kalyanji Anandji, sung by Asha Bhosle, and featured the dancer Helen. [123]

    Western classical music

    Some prominent Indians in Western classical music are:

      - conductor and music educator, , conductor , father of Zubin, violinist and founding conductor of the Bombay Symphony Orchestra , pianist , the first Indian to compose a full symphony performed by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra in London's Walthamstow Town Hall , British Indian-born composer , British Indian-born composer , Indian-born composer , Indian-born composer of SHABD ITNA PYARA https://soundcloud.com/futuresoundmumbai/shabd-itna-pyara

    Influence on national music scene

    Bollywood has been a significant form of soft power for India, increasing its influence and changing overseas perceptions of India. [124] [125] According to author Roopa Swaminathan, "Bollywood cinema is one of the strongest global cultural ambassadors of a new India." [125] [126] Its role in expanding India's global influence is comparable to Hollywood's similar role with American influence. [127]


    Hindi films were originally distributed to some parts of Africa by Lebanese businessmen, and Mother India (1957) continued to be screened in Nigeria decades after its release. Indian movies have influenced Hausa clothing, songs have been covered by Hausa singers, and stories have influenced Nigerian novelists. Stickers of Indian films and stars decorate taxis and buses in Nigeria's Northern Region, and posters of Indian films hang on the walls of tailoring shops and mechanics' garages. [129]

    In South Africa, film imports from India were watched by black and Indian audiences. [130] Several Bollywood figures have travelled to Africa for films and off-camera projects. Padmashree Laloo Prasad Yadav (2005) was filmed in South Africa. [131] Dil Jo Bhi Kahey. (2005) was also filmed almost entirely in Mauritius, which has a large ethnic-Indian population.

    In Egypt, Bollywood films were popular during the 1970s and 1980s. [132] [133] Amitabh Bachchan has remained popular in the country [134] and Indian tourists visiting Egypt are asked, "Do you know Amitabh Bachchan?" [135]



    Indo-Caribbean music of Indo-Caribbean people in Caribbean is most common in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Jamaica, and Suriname, which reflects their Bhojpuri heritage. Main instrumentation are dhantal, metal rod, claper, dholak, two-headed barrel drum. Women sing Hindu bhajans and folk songs from the music of Bhojpur on various important life events, rituals, celebrations, festivals like phagwah and holi. Indo-Caribbean contributions to popular music are very important. The most well-known is the Indo-Trinidadian chutney music tradition. Chutney is a form of popular dance music that developed in the mid-to late 20th century. Baithak Gana is a similar popular form originating in Suriname. [136] [137]

    Latin America

    There is significant Indian diaspora communities in Suriname [138] and Guyana, Indian music and Hindi-language movies are popular. [139] In 2006, Dhoom 2 became the first Bollywood film to be shot in Rio de Janeiro. [140]

    North America

    In the new millennium, American hip-hop has featured Indian filmi and bhangra. Mainstream hip-hop artists have sampled songs from Bollywood movies and have collaborated with Indian artists. Examples include Timbaland's "Indian Flute", Erick Sermon and Redman's "React", Slum Village's "Disco", and Truth Hurts' hit song "Addictive", which sampled a Lata Mangeshkar song, and The Black Eyed Peas sampled Asha Bhosle's song "Yeh Mera Dil" in their hit single "Don't Phunk With My Heart". In 1997, the British band Cornershop paid tribute to Asha Bhosle with their song Brimful of Asha, which became an international hit. British-born Indian artist Panjabi MC also had a Bhangra hit in the US with "Mundian To Bach Ke" which featured rapper Jay-Z. Asian Dub Foundation are not huge mainstream stars, but their politically charged rap and punk rock influenced sound has a multi-racial audience in their native UK. In 2008, international star Snoop Dogg appeared in a song in the film Singh Is Kinng. In 2007, hip-hop producer Madlib released Beat Konducta Vol 3–4: Beat Konducta in India an album which heavily samples and is inspired by the music of India.

    South Asia

    Due to shared cultural heritage and language, Indian music and Bollywood films are also popular in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal, where Hindustani is widely understood. [141] [142]

    Southeast Asia
    West Asia

    West Asia has large Indian diaspora population, who mainly consume Indian music. Indian music is also popular with native middle eastern people. 85% of Qatar's and 75% of UAE's total population are Indian citizens. [143] Hindi films and music have become popular in Arab countries, [144] and imported Indian films are usually subtitled in Arabic when they are released. Bollywood has progressed in Israel since the early 2000s, with channels dedicated to Indian films on cable television [145]



    In Germany, Indian stereotypes included bullock carts, beggars, sacred cows, corrupt politicians, and catastrophes before Bollywood and the IT industry transformed global perceptions of India. [146]

    In the late 1980s, Indian-British artists fused Indian and Western traditions to make the Asian Underground. Since the 1990s, Canadian born musician Nadaka who has spent most of his life in India, has been creating music that is an acoustic fusion of Indian classical music with western styles. One such singer who has merged the Bhakti sangeet tradition of India with the western non-Indian music is Krishna Das and sells music records of his musical sadhana. Another example is the Indo-Canadian musician Vandana Vishwas who has experimented with western music in her 2013 album Monologues.

    In a more recent example of Indian-British fusion, Laura Marling along with Mumford and Sons collaborated in 2010 with the Dharohar Project on a four-song EP. [32] The British band Bombay Bicycle Club also sampled the song "Man Dole Mera Tan Dole" for their single "Feel". [147] Laxmikant-Pyarelal


    Due to large Indian diaspora population, Indian music and movies are very popular in Fiji especially among Indo-Fijians. [148]

    Australia and New Zealand have 2 percent Indian population, as well as other a large South Asian diaspora, and Bollywood music and movies are popular amongst non-Asians in the country as well. [148]

    Sangeet Natak Akademi is the national level academy for performing arts set up by the Government of India in 1952, which bestows Sangeet Natak Akademi Award as the highest official Indian government's recognition given to practicing artists, [149] It has established several institutions including the Manipur Dance Academy in Imphal, [150] Ravindra Rangshala Centers, [151] Sattriya Centre, Kathak Kendra (National Institute of Kathak Dance) at New Delhi, Centre for Kutiyattam at Thiruvananthapuram, Chhau Centre at Baripada in Jamshedpur, Banaras Music Akademi,

    Special Exhibits

    Granite Rock Company, founded February 14, 1900, is proud of its rich history, which parallels the growth and development of California’s Central Coast. Throughout the years, our family has been inspired by the core values originally established by Arthur Roberts Wilson. With vision, inspiration and remarkable stewardship, his grandson Bruce Wilson Woolpert used these values to build the company into a successful and highly-respected business within the San Francisco and Monterey Bay region.

    The company retains a rich collection of photographs and historic documents which span the years. They reveal the stories of the people of Graniterock, who have built an enduring company as they have provided for their families and contributed to their communities.

    Graniterock’s Virtual Museum is a compilation of favorites from our collection. Photos and documents from each decade are selected to illustrate important people, locales and events of the time. From time to time, Special Collections will be added to highlight particular eras or interests.

    We welcome comments, corrections and additions to our archives. Construction is an essential part of our region's history, and we are glad to be able to share our story with you.

    Learn more about Graniterock’s history in the History Brochure and Redwood City History Brochure

    Granite Rock Company’s roots lie deep in the history of the central California coast. In fact, its story began more than 200 million years ago, when a mass of molten granite began to push up from the depths of the earth through limestone, sandstone and clay on the bed of an ancient ocean. The granite cooled, contracted and cracked, and was folded, broken, crushed and uplifted as the Pacific Plate slowly drifted north. The fortuitous location of the granite directly upon the San Andreas Fault would ease future mining of this pre-fractured rock.

    In 1769 the Portola Expedition camped on the Pajaro River and noted the giant trees with red-hued wood growing nearby, but its granite deposit would not be noticed for another 102 years. In 1871, while plotting the coastal Southern Pacific Railroad near Chittenden Pass, nine miles east of the town of Watsonville, engineers found granite in their path. It was perfect for use as ballast to form railroad beds as track was laid throughout the state.

    On the heels of the Gold Rush, adventurous people were arriving in the West looking for a new life. Teenager Joanna McIntyre traveled across the Isthmus of Panama on route from Kentucky, and in California she met and married Enoch Wilson, a San Francisco shopkeeper. They sent their son Arthur to study engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Arthur Roberts Wilson graduated with the MIT class of 1890 and returned to California to begin his career as a construction engineer. He served a term as Oakland City Civil Engineer, and ran Oakland’s Leona Heights Quarry. Meanwhile, in Santa Cruz County, another young man named Warren Porter saw a good business opportunity in the little granite quarry at Aromas. He asked Wilson to join him in buying the quarry, and to operate it as well. A.R. Wilson borrowed $10,000, moved with his wife and children to Watsonville, and incorporated Granite Rock Company on February 14, 1900.

    In the beginning, quarry operations were tough. Men used sledgehammers, picks, shovels and wheelbarrows to break and load rock onto horse drawn wagons for the trip to the railroad line. Workers were paid $1.75 per ten-hour day to produce 12 tons of broken rock in sizes of 6 inch and minus. Men slept at the quarry bunkhouse and ate at the cookhouse. Breakfast was served at 5 A.M. – work started at 6 A.M. Relief came in 1903 when the quarry was automated with a steam powered No. 3 McCully crusher. It produced 20 tons of 2 ½ inch rock per hour. The granite was transported from the quarry face in horse-drawn, side-dump rail cars, still loaded by hand.

    Then disaster struck. The San Andreas Fault had created the quarry, and now it destroyed what stood in its path. The 1906 Earthquake flattened the new steam crushing plant and put a halt to operations. Train rails were twisted, rail cars overturned, and the quarry operation generally devastated. A.R. Wilson joined the disaster relief effort and hauled all the bread he could find to help San Francisco’s hungry citizens. Fortunately, the earthquake’s devastation created a new demand for construction. Granite Rock Company, with California State Contractor’s License No. 22, built a number of important buildings in San Francisco and around the Monterey Bay area. Among those still standing are the old Gilroy City Hall and the old San Francisco Wells Fargo Building.

    As automobiles began to replace the horse and buggy, street paving became a necessity. Granite Rock Company received its first street contract for placement of water bond macadam on Lake Avenue in Watsonville, from Walker Street to the northeast city limits. The total contract, including grading and gutters, amounted to $18,000. In 1915, the California State Legislature passed a bill known as the “Get Out of the Mud Act” to encourage street modernization, and Granite Rock salesmen were busy signing up neighborhoods to pave their streets.

    At the Aromas Quarry, a Marion steam shovel was purchased to further mechanize operations, and in 1911 horse drawn carts were replaced with a Porter steam locomotive to haul broken rock from the quarry face to the crusher. Rock was loaded onto wooden sided Western Dump rail cars, and men climbed up to break the big rocks with a sledgehammer. If the rock wouldn’t break, it was dumped for the powder crew to dynamite. At San Francisco’s 1915 Panama Pacific Exhibition, Granite Rock Company won the Gold Ribbon for excellence in crushed rock.

    World War I caused freight costs to skyrocket, and as a result local plants were developed so that rock could be sold in small truck lots. Granite Rock Company built bunkers along the railroad from South San Francisco to San Luis Obispo to supply local construction businesses. Construction was booming throughout California, and Granite Rock Company was expanding with the state’s growing needs. In 1916, a railroad was built to Southern California’s Doheny oil fields, and Granite Rock sent men and machinery as far south as Santa Maria to do the work. In 1918, Granite Rock built the highway connecting Castroville with Moss Landing. Employed on this “Cauliflower Boulevard” job was a worker from Salinas named John Steinbeck.

    In 1922, A.R. Wilson became Granite Rock Company president and majority shareholder. Also that year, Wilson founded Granite Construction Company as a separate entity and became its first president. In 1924, Wilson started Central Supply Company, which distributed building materials. Granite Rock Company remained the producer of rock and sand products for construction projects and materials sales. Also in 1922, the 56 year old Wilson, recently widowed, married Anna R. Weiss of St. Louis, Missouri and began to raise a new family. In the meantime, A.R.’s son, A.J. “Jeff” Wilson, assumed the vice-presidency of Granite Rock. All was well until one day when driving home from work at the quarry, A.R. Wilson suffered a massive heart attack and died. His wife Anna, now 43 and with two toddlers to rear, assumed presidency of the company, and Jeff Wilson took over as General Manager. All of this took place just ten days before the stock market crash of 1929.

    The Great Depression took a heavy toll on American business, and Granite Rock was no exception. Work was so scarce at the quarry that a whistle was blown to call men in when as little as one car of rock was ordered. The Board of Directors had to ask permission from the Federal Reserve Bank in order to give Christmas bonuses. Unable to offer regular employment, the company made interest free loans to cover medical bills. Struggling to keep its three companies afloat, the Wilson family sold its interest in Granite Construction to Walter Wilkinson and Bert Scott in 1936. South San Francisco, San Jose and San Luis Obispo branches of Central Supply Company were also sold.

    However, in the 1930s progress did take place. Central Supply Company opened California’s first asphaltic concrete plant at Aromas, and began California’s first delivery of pre-mixed concrete in tiny dump trucks. This concrete went for projects such as the WPA’s construction of the Santa Cruz Civic Auditorium. World War II brought new activity to Granite Rock. Materials were needed to build Fort Ord, Camp McQuaide and the Navy airstrip in Watsonville. Many men were away serving in the armed forces and working in war plants, so workers came from Jamaica, and for the first time, if only temporarily, women were employed at the quarry. A new plant was built at Asilomar in Pacific Grove, and excavation of the mining face at the Aromas Quarry brought it down 100 feet, now level with the train tracks. A new primary crushing plant was built at the lower level, with a grand opening in 1946.

    By the early 1950s, Jeff Wilson had left Granite Rock and Anna Wilson had retired. Her daughter, Mary Elizabeth (Betsy) Wilson Woolpert, took over as president. Again, it was a time for growth. Wet processing and loading plants were built at Aromas, and new plants were built at Salinas, Felton, Santa Cruz and Los Gatos. Central Supply purchased its first fleet of transit mixer trucks from Ford Motor Company in Salinas. Betsy Woolpert had two young children at home, and turned the company presidency over to her husband, Bruce G. Woolpert.

    During the 1960s and 1970s, Granite Rock grew with the tremendous development of the Monterey and San Francisco Bay areas. Central Supply was merged with Granite Rock to form one company for construction materials production and sales, and expansion took place in sand, concrete, asphaltic concrete and building materials operations. Plants were opened in San Jose, Redwood City, Santa Cruz, Gilroy, Hollister, Salinas and Seaside. In step with the times, Graniterock installed its first computer – an IBM System 3. In the 1980s, the company undertook a major investment to completely modernize operations at the quarry in Aromas. First, a giant mobile primary crusher was designed and built – the world’s largest of its kind. Conveyors were installed to carry rock from the primary crusher to a new wash plant and secondary crushers. Finally, an innovative, computer automated truck and rail car loading system was unveiled at the rechristened A.R. Wilson Quarry.

    The 1990s brought even more innovation. Graniterock Construction Division quickly became one of California’s premier heavy engineering contractors. New concrete, sand and recycling operations were added to the Graniterock family. But perhaps most significant was a fresh focus on meeting customer needs by providing precise, fast and flexible service. Attention to personal development and the empowerment of Graniterock People also improved quality and customer assistance. Graniterock was recognized for its accomplishments with awards for excellence in management and business practices, most notably in 1992 with the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award, the nation’s highest honor for business excellence. Fortune Magazine placed Graniterock on its annual list of the country’s 100 Best Places to Work. Commitment to community service, always a company priority, was expressed in new ways, such as “Pops and Rocks” Independence Day concerts to benefit the United Way, and support of excellence in education in Santa Cruz County public schools.

    On February 14, 2000, A.R. Wilson’s grandson, Bruce Wilson Woolpert, welcomed President George H.W. Bush, Graniterock People, customers and friends to a gala 100th anniversary celebration. Preparing for a new millennium, expansive corporate offices were opened in Watsonville in 2002, and company sites were added in Oakland, Cupertino and Milpitas. A Graniterock Web site brought information to a new world of customers, and technical innovations were applied in ever more creative ways. During this decade, an impressive array of ground-breaking systems was developed to advance productivity and customer service. The cutting edge GraniteXpress 2 ™ automated truck loading system eliminated customer wait time and provided customers with the benefits of up to the minute quantity and productivity reports at quarry and asphalt locations. A unique sales and invoicing system consolidated invoices across product lines, and quality focused technological research and development delivered contractors and owners the performance results they wanted. Graniterock’s concern for the environment earned awards for community stewardship, and leadership in Green Technology helped solve customer problems in an environmentally friendly way.

    Now, still family owned, Graniterock locations extend from Oakland to Monterey. The values of quality, innovation and respect for people which were first established by the Company’s founder, Arthur R. Wilson, continue to lead Graniterock into the future.


    Election to membership in the NAS is considered one of the highest honors that a scientist can receive. Read more about our members and their contributions to science.

    Featured member: Arup Chakraborty uses statistical-mechanics methods to predict the characteristics of optimal antigens for "universal" vaccines for rapidly mutating viruses.


    The word museum has classical origins. In its Greek form, mouseion, it meant “seat of the Muses” and designated a philosophical institution or a place of contemplation. Use of the Latin derivation, museum, appears to have been restricted in Roman times mainly to places of philosophical discussion. Thus, the great Museum at Alexandria, founded by Ptolemy I Soter early in the 3rd century bce , with its college of scholars and its famous library, was more a prototype university than an institution to preserve and interpret material aspects of one’s heritage. The word museum was revived in 15th-century Europe to describe the collection of Lorenzo de’ Medici in Florence, but the term conveyed the concept of comprehensiveness rather than denoting a building. By the 17th century, museum was being used in Europe to describe collections of curiosities. Ole Worm’s collection in Copenhagen was so called, and in England visitors to John Tradescant’s collection in Lambeth (now a London borough) called the array there a museum the catalog of this collection, published in 1656, was titled Musaeum Tradescantianum. In 1675 the collection, having become the property of Elias Ashmole, was transferred to the University of Oxford. A building was constructed to receive it, and this, soon after being opened to the public in 1683, became known as the Ashmolean Museum. Although there is some ambivalence in the use of museum in the legislation, drafted in 1753, founding the British Museum, nevertheless the idea of an institution called a museum and established to preserve and display a collection to the public was well established in the 18th century. Indeed, Denis Diderot outlined a detailed scheme for a national museum for France in the ninth volume of his Encyclopédie, published in 1765.

    Use of the word museum during the 19th and most of the 20th century denoted a building housing cultural material to which the public had access. Later, as museums continued to respond to the societies that created them, the emphasis on the building itself became less dominant. Open-air museums, comprising a series of buildings preserved as objects, and ecomuseums, involving the interpretation of all aspects of an outdoor environment, provide examples of this. In addition, so-called virtual museums exist in electronic form on the Internet. Although virtual museums provide interesting opportunities for and bring certain benefits to existing museums, they remain dependent upon the collection, preservation, and interpretation of material things by the real museum.

    The Vedic Era

    In the Vedic era, the election of the king was in the hands of the people. Dr. K.P. Jayaswal’s brilliant Hindu Polity contains rich descriptions of this electoral process. Suffice to say that every village, town and city had public halls (akin to the modern Town Halls). The village folk and townsfolk would regularly meet there to discuss issues of public importance. These halls also served as the location for general social gatherings. Vigorous debates were held. Local and non-local issues were sorted out after heated discussions that sometimes lasted for weeks. These halls were also venues for verbal contests. The Tattiriya Brahmana has a brilliant verse which encourages young men to actively participate in public assemblies and speak their mind on social and national issues without fear.

    The King studiously compiled reports of all such debates and generally followed the current of public opinion. More importantly, he would consult the prominent and wise people in his kingdom before implementing a policy that he felt would go against public opinion.

    These foundational principles endured throughout our history as we shall see.


    The Indonesian Literature Study Program is the first study program established from the beginning of the establishment of Faculty of Literature, which at that time was named the Faculty of Literature and Culture. The establishment of this study program as well as the faculty departs from the idea of establishment as stated in the consideration of the Decree of the UNDIP’s Rector No. 626/Sp/Adm/BUP/1965 dated January 25, 1965 concerning the Establishment of the Faculty of Literature Establishment Committee which written as follows:

    “The Central Java is an area that rich of Indonesian historical, cultural, and literary sources.”

    With the hard work of the commitee leaded by Prof. Soenario S.H., this faculty was established on September 1, 1965 with the Ministerial Decree PTIP No. 173/1965 dated August 21, 1965 with a study program or department, namely the Department of Indonesiology. The department was established with the hope that the graduates are expected to be able to perform a research and broaden the insight regarding Indonesian literature, language, history, and culture in the hope that it could become widely known by international community. In line with the development and guidance of the era, the Faculty of Literature and Culture established a new department, namely: The Department of Anglo-Saxon (1967) and the Department of History (1974). The Department of Indonesiology then changed into Indonesian Literature, the Department of Anglo-Saxon also changed into English Department, and Department of History was changed into History Department. The determination of the Department of Indonesiology was based on the Decree of PTIP No. 173/1965. However, the new Indonesian Literature Department certificate was confirmed by the Director General of Higher Education on July 11, 1996 No. 220 / Dikti / Kep / 96.

    Based on the accreditation certificate issued by the National Accreditation Board of the Republic of Indonesia No. 773 / SK / BAN-PT / Accredited / S / VII / 2015, it was decided that the Bachelor of Indonesian Language and Literature Study Program was accredited with an A rank.



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