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Gallipoli Campaign

Gallipoli Campaign

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Gallipoli is the name of both a city and a peninsula in the eastern Dardanelles, guardian of the approach to Constantinople (called Istanbul after 1930), the Bosporus and the Black Sea.In January 1915, the British War Cabinet authorized a direct strike against Turkey, one of the Central Powers in World War I. This idea had been pushed enthusiastically by First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill. Unfortunately, while this project was approved in high circles, it never enjoyed the full support of the British command and may have been doomed from the start.It was hoped initially that the Allied aims would be accomplished by the British Navy. These losses, coupled with the fact that the Turkish positions ahead were farther inland and out of artillery range, led to a decision to withdraw.Allied planners concluded that the objectives could not be met without an amphibious assault. Combined deaths for both sides in the nine-month campaign totaled approximately 100,000; more than a quarter million were wounded.The Turkish victory was due in large part to an inspired defense mounted by forces under Liman von Sanders' command. The Allies’ effort was weakened by frequently faulty intelligence and uninspiring leadership. The Russians also played a role in the outcome by failing to do their part to cause distractions on the Black Sea side of the Bosporus; they feared a British and French occupation of Constantinople more than they desired a Turkish defeat.The Central Powers’ offensive against Russia was temporarily weakened by the Gallipoli diversion, but the Allied failure to achieve their ends prompted the Bulgarians to enter the war on the side of Germany and Turkey. Winston Churchill’s reputation was badly, but not permanently, damaged by this event.

Watch the video: The Gallipoli Campaign 1915 (May 2022).


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