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Who was the American settler Tolman of Kamchatka?

Who was the American settler Tolman of Kamchatka?

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In To the Pacific and Arctic with Beechey: The Journal of Lieutenant George Peard of HMS Blossom, 1825-1828, Peard mentions visiting "Mr. Tolman an American Settler" in Avatcha, Kamchatka, "7 or 8 miles from Petropaulowski towards the bottom of the bay".

I've not found anything else on this fellow. Who was he and what was he up to in Kamchatka?

William "Василий" Tolman was a New Englander born in 1793. According to the book "Тайны камчатских имен", he arrived in Petropavlovsk, Kamchatka in 1813.

A story about one of his daughters, long settled in the USA, getting in touch with her brothers was published in several American newspapers in the 1890s. According to this story, her father had been working on a whaling ship (I would love to know which one). The ship stopped in Kamchatka for repairs, which he made successfully. He stayed and served as a translator. His decision to stay may be linked to his marriage to a local woman named Daria Egorovna Kikenova. They have loads of descendants living today. "Вопросы истории Камчатки" says that some of them were involved in defending Petropavlovsk during the siege of 1854.

A Bigger United States

Thank ya kindly Mr. Plumber, I see for once we have discussed Wilson without derailing the thread, we are making progress as it would seem.

Though I find myself amused at the realization of how immensely similar US Latin America policy back in the early 20th century was to modern US Middle East policy. Gotta protect 'dem bananas/oil resources.

Well why would policy analysts make whole new strategies when they can just lazily look at history? Apparently they didn't remember one word from Latin America though: insurgency.

It also may be worth noting that many people thought Nicaragua especially would join the US, probably people who wanted a Nicaraguan canal as well.
Forgot about Greenland, that's a good one. And you could always make the pacific islands the state of Pacifista instead of kind-of-not-really decolonizing

I live right by Baja. No one is really interested in moving there, California has as much undeveloped desert as it is. The only place in Baja people go are typically Tijuana and Mexicali (because they're very very very close) and Cabo San Lucas. If it was part of the US because of the Mex-Am War or William Walker succeeded or a larger Purchase, then what would happen is Tijuana is part of San Diego, Mexicali wouldn't exist, and Cabo would be pretty much the same.


Well why would policy analysts make whole new strategies when they can just lazily look at history? Apparently they didn't remember one word from Latin America though: insurgency.

It also may be worth noting that many people thought Nicaragua especially would join the US, probably people who wanted a Nicaraguan canal as well.
Forgot about Greenland, that's a good one. And you could always make the pacific islands the state of Pacifista instead of kind-of-not-really decolonizing

I live right by Baja. No one is really interested in moving there, California has as much undeveloped desert as it is. The only place in Baja people go are typically Tijuana and Mexicali (because they're very very very close) and Cabo San Lucas. If it was part of the US because of the Mex-Am War or William Walker succeeded or a larger Purchase, then what would happen is Tijuana is part of San Diego, Mexicali wouldn't exist, and Cabo would be pretty much the same.

Life Story of Nancy Afton Tolman Loveland

Nancy Afton Tolmans was born at Chesterfield, Idaho, 19 August, 1898. She is the daughter of Cyrus Tolman and Eliza Ann Riley. She was born in a log cabin with a dirt roof. She remembers, while a very small child that when it rained their home would leak and her mother would set pans around to catch the rain water. At the age of 4 the family moved about 1 mile from her birthplace in a log cabin with a shingled roof. After living in this home for about a year they moved into a 1-roomed house across the road. Her father added a shanty and fixed up the attic so they could sleep up there, he then built a frame 6-room home with 2 clothes closets and a pantry. Every member of the family were thrilled over the new home and their father had built it so it was warm. The walls were about 12" thick, with concrete and rock. All the work being done by their father except plastering the walls. Nancy lived in this home until she was married.

One day, at the age of 12, she was asked by her parents to come home from school to do the ironing. She was unable to get the stove irons hot enough so she decided to pour kerosene into the stove as she had seen her parents do on different occasions. This she did on the hot coals and it exploded into her face filling her eyes with soot and ashes and burning her hair. Then, she ran to her older sister Elnora, who put out the flames. Nancy's eyes felt like balls of fire. She had to lay with oil packs on them for a couple of days. When her father came home at night he would administer to her so that her sight would not be harmed. This was always their physician. As children they were taught to call in the Elders of the church and be administered to. In this ordinance Nancy is a firm believer. She just attended grade school.

At the age of 14 she was assistant Secretary of the Sunday School. Also, at 14 years of age she met her husband and they went together for 3 years. On 28 September 1915, she was married to Josiah Howe Loveland, Jr. He was a sheep man at this time with his father, and Uncle Carlos promised her father they would go to the Temple later. The days and years went by and their family started coming. Each time Grandfather Loveland would visit them he would talk to them about going to the Temple. In 1919 Grandfather Heber passed away and they attended his funeral. On the way home Howe said, "Well, I'm going to get busy and go to the Temple before Grandmother dies". So Howe quit smoking and in a year from then, on October 7, 1920, they went to the Salt Lake Temple with their little family of 3- 1 girl, Afton, and 2 boys, Orlin Chauncy and Wallace Howe. What a glorious day this was for them. Her mother, Eliza Ann Riley Tolman went with them, also Aunt Jane Riley. She said their children reminded her of little angles around the alter in the temple and since that day Howe has been active in the church.

Nancy loved to work with the children, she served as Primary President 3 different times, and has held as high as 5 positions in the ward at one time- such as Primary President, Sunday School teacher, Junior teacher in the Mutual, Relief Society visiting teacher and also taught in Primary.

Her husband has been president of the YMMIA, also Sunday School Supt. Then Counselor to the Bishop for 8 years. They had 2 boys in World War II. At this time they have 3 married sons living in Las Vegas, Nevada. Their son Orlin has a grocery store and has acted as president of the Chamber of Commerce and is now Vice Pres. They have buried 2 children out of 14 and 2 grandchildren. The rest are living in Idaho. They have 22 grandchildren.

Nathan Tolman Jr. - William Augustus Tolman

Nathan Tolman Jr. (8 Oct 1815 - Aug 1863)
Olester Tolman (20 Sep 1907 - 22 Feb 1962)
Priscilla Tolman (20 Nov 1710 - 1 Jan 1711)
Rebecca Tolman (ABT 1620 - ____)
Rebecca Tolman (6 Apr 1647 - 13 Mar 1717)
Reuben Tolman (25 Jul 1759 - 18 Oct 1837)
Reuben Tolman (30 May 1797 - 29 Aug 1859)
Ruth Tolman (1640 - 1 May 1681)
Samuel Tolman (11 Jun 1676 - 18 May 1738)
Samuel Tolman (20 Sep 1706 - 14 Jul 1707)
Samuel Tolman (14 Dec 1707 - 22 Feb 1707)
Samuel Hardy Tolman (17 Sep 1858 - 31 Mar 1927)
Sarah Tolman (1636 - 20 Apr 1722)
Sarah Tolman (3 Sep 1709 - ____)
Sarah Tolman (13 Mar 1814 - 11 Mar 1903)
Sarah Ann Tolman (15 Feb 1874 - 26 Feb 1935)
Sarah Elvira Tolman (29 Mar 1868 - 1887)
Sarah Lovenia Tolman (27 Aug 1887 - 27 Sep 1979)
Sarah Lucretia Tolman (7 Apr 1855 - 19 Sep 1914)
Sarah Margaret Tolman (28 Mar 1847 - 12 Apr 1847)
son Tolman (19 Jun 1884 - 19 Jun 1884)
Thomas Tolman (1550 - 1632)
Thomas Tolman (6 Dec 1608 - 18 Jun 1690)
Thomas Tolman (May 1633 - 12 Sep 1718)
Thomas Tolman (1668 - 6 Nov 1738)
Wallace Holbrook Tolman (13 Apr 1867 - 8 Nov 1935)
William Tolman (12 Aug 1719 - 3 Aug 1763)
William Augustus Tolman (29 Aug 1850 - ____)

Up (John Thompson - Anne Webster )
Back (Judson Adonirum Tolman Jr. - Nathan Tolman )
Next (Elizabeth Tomes - Margaret (Jane) Trethford )

AHC: A US state outside of the Americas.

No, they explicitly voted to become a state of the Union in the status change vote.

“Do you want to change Puerto Rico’s status? Yes/No”

“If yes, to what do you want to change the status? State/Independent/Other”

It means that a majority wants to change the status. Which means that they win and that the people who said ’No’ don’t win.

Are you currently standing outside the White House, armed, demanding Barack Obama relinquish his illegal hold on the presidency?

Because more people voted for Romney PLUS didn’t vote at all than voted for Barack Obama. Therefore he is not president because clearly those people who didn’t vote “disliked the question” or “were taking a stand”.

Your presumption of why a vote was left blank and the conclusion drawn therefrom is meaningless. They did not vote. They voided their right to be heard. They do not get their meaning heard.

Yes. They were saying, “WE GIVE UP OUR RIGHT TO VOTE”. Votes that are not made are not counted. That’s how everything has always worked. If you want to take a stand, you take a stand by VOTING. If you don’t want something to happen, you vote against it.

Pretty simple concept. They’re becoming a state.


Otherwise, options outside of the Pacific are fairly limited. A different WW2 leading to Icelandbeing under US administration, influx of US military personnel, permanent basis, and eventual territorioal/statehood status?

Otherwise, we are limited to the logical westward expansion of the US to Hawaii (already a state), other Polynesian island groups, and on to Guam and the Phillipines.

I think these two are the only real options.

For Iceland to ever become part of the US, the US would likely need to get both Newfoundland and Greenland first. Say Newfoundland votes to keep responsible government in 1949. It signs a free trade pact with the US which keeps a large air and naval base there. At the same time, the US handles its offer better to Denmark to purchase Greenland which becomes a territory. Sometime in the 1950s or 1960s, Newfoundland votes to join the US. Then if the US keeps forces in Iceland for whatever reason, perhaps making it some kind of protectorate while Icelanders keep internal sovereignty, Iceland eventually joins a free trade agreement with the US in the 1980s or 1990s. Then at some point, Iceland votes to join the US. That last step is the biggest since there is no natural consituency IOTL for it. Presumably, economic dependance and long term US occupation (with lots of US-Icelandic marriages) changes things enough so a strong pro-statehood movement happens.

For the Pacific, the US already has many Pacific territories. What is needed would be sufficient population in one of them that would justify statehood. None of them really do however, so we're left with a situation where a part of the Philippines would become one or more states.

Kamchatka is another possibility as the Russians offered to sell it to the US. It would take a lot for it to ever be declared a state though.

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The name "Pawtucket" comes from the Algonquian word for "river fall." [8]

The Pawtucket region was said to have been one of the most populous places in New England prior to the arrival of European settlers. [9] Native Americans would gather here to catch the salmon and smaller fish that gathered at the falls. [9] The first European settler here was Joseph Jenks, who came to the region from Lynn, Massachusetts. [9] He purchased about 60 acres near Pawtucket Falls in 1671, [9] then established a sawmill and forge. [9] These, along with the entire town, were later destroyed during King Philip's War. [9]

Other settlers followed Jenks, and by 1775 the area was home to manufacturers of muskets, linseed oil, potash, and ships. [9] Also around this time Oziel Wilkinson and his family set up an iron forge that made anchors, nails, screws, farm implements, and even cannons. [9]

Pawtucket was an early and important center of cotton textiles during the American Industrial Revolution. Slater Mill, built in 1793 by Samuel Slater on the Blackstone River falls in downtown Pawtucket, was the first fully mechanized cotton-spinning mill in America. [10] Slater Mill is known for developing a commercially successful production process not reliant on earlier horse-drawn processes developed in America. Slater constructed and operated machines for producing yarn. Other manufacturers continued, transforming Pawtucket into a center for textiles, iron working, and other products.

By the 1920s, Pawtucket was a prosperous mill town. The city had over a half-dozen movie theaters, two dozen hotels, and an impressive collection of fine commercial and residential architecture. [11] Perhaps the most impressive public building in Pawtucket was the Leroy Theatre, an ornate movie palace that was called "Pawtucket's Million Dollar Theater". [11] Many wealthy mill owners such as Darius Goff built their mansions in the area. [12]

The textile business in New England declined during the Great Depression with many manufacturers closing or moving their facilities South where operations and labor were cheaper. Later in the 20th Century, Pawtucket began to lose some of its architectural heritage to the wrecking ball, including the Leroy Theatre. [11]

Unlike numerous older mill towns in the region, Pawtucket retained much of its industrial base. Today, goods produced in the city include lace, non-woven and elastic woven materials, jewelry, silverware, metals, and textiles. Hasbro, one of the world's largest manufacturers of toys and games, is headquartered in Pawtucket.

Map of Pawtucket, Massachusetts, July 1848

Walcott Brothers' factory in 1855

Pawtucket in 1886 viewed from the steeple of the Pawtucket Congregational Church

A tale of two states Edit

Originally, the land west of the Blackstone River was part of nearby North Providence. [9] East of the Blackstone River was originally settled as part of the Massachusetts town of Rehoboth. The first Pawtucket to be incorporated was in 1828 when Rehoboth gave up their land and Pawtucket became a new town in Massachusetts. [9] In 1862 the eastern portion was absorbed into Providence County, Rhode Island. [9] On March 1, 1862, after a nearly 225-year border dispute between Rhode Island and Plymouth/Massachusetts, the area of Pawtucket and East Providence was shifted into Rhode Island, and the new border remains to this day. In 1874, the land west of the river was taken from North Providence and added to the town of Pawtucket, but acted as two different towns. Finally in 1886, West and East Pawtucket were merged and the city was incorporated. [9] [13]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.0 square miles (23 km 2 ), of which, 8.7 square miles (23 km 2 ) of it is land and 0.3 square miles (0.78 km 2 ) of it (2.89%) is water. Pawtucket lies within three drainage basins. These include the Blackstone River (including the Seekonk River), the Moshassuck River and the Ten Mile River.

Historical population
Census Pop.
18402,184 49.7%
18503,753 71.8%
18604,200 11.9%
18706,619 57.6%
188019,030 187.5%
189027,633 45.2%
190039,231 42.0%
191051,622 31.6%
192064,248 24.5%
193077,149 20.1%
194075,797 −1.8%
195081,436 7.4%
196081,001 −0.5%
197076,984 −5.0%
198071,204 −7.5%
199072,644 2.0%
200072,958 0.4%
201071,148 −2.5%
2019 (est.)72,117 [3] 1.4%
U.S. Decennial Census

As of the census [4] of 2010, there were 71,141 people, 32,055 households, and 18,508 families residing in the city. Pawtucket was the fourth most populous of Rhode Island's 39 cities and towns. The population density was 8,351.2 people per square mile (3,223.0/km 2 ). There were 32,055 housing units at an average density of 3,642.2 per square mile (1,405.7/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 50.4% Non-Hispanic white, 18.9% Non-Hispanic African American, 0.60% Native American, 1.6% Non-Hispanic Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, mixed race 3.9%, 4.7% other. About 25% of residents are Latino. [ citation needed ]

There were 32,055 households, out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.7% were married couples living together, 16.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.4% were non-families. 32.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.07.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 24.9% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 31.3% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, and 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $28,124, and the median income for a family was $40,578. Males had a median income of $31,129 versus $23,391 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,008. About 14.9% of families and 16.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.5% of those under age 18 and 15.2% of those age 65 or over.

According to the 2000 census, 20.6% of Pawtucket residents are French or French-Canadian. [15] Like nearby cities Providence, Fall River, and New Bedford., Pawtucket hosts a significant population from across the former Portuguese Empire (11.6%), [15] including a significant Cape Verdean population.

Pawtucket is also one of the few areas of the United States with a significant Liberian population, mostly refugees from Charles Taylor's regime Rhode Island has the highest per capita Liberian population in the country. [16] Pawtucket has a high concentration of West Africans.

The City of Pawtucket has been supportive of the arts community since 1975. On September 2, 1977, The Beach Boys performed a concert at Narragansett Park attended by 40,000 people, the largest concert audience in Rhode Island history. In 2017, music historians Al Gomes and Connie Watrous of Big Noise were successful in getting the street where the concert stage stood (the corner of 455 Narragansett Park Drive) officially renamed as "Beach Boys Way". [17] [18] [19]

In January, 1999, Herb Weiss, of the Planning Department, was hired to oversee the City's newly created Arts District. Through the support of then Mayor James E. Doyle and Planning Department Michael Cassidy, Weiss brought significant recognition for Pawtucket-Arts oriented development strategy. [20] Mayor Doyle and Weiss hired researcher Ann Galligan, of Northeastern University, to create an arts and cultural plan. Over the years Pawtucket has become known [ by whom? ] as a center for arts and culture. [21]

Several experimental/indie rock bands have recorded albums at Machines with Magnets, a recording studio and art gallery in Downtown Pawtucket. Bands that have performed or recorded here include Battles, Lightning Bolt, Brown Bird, and Fang Island.

One hub for arts and culture in the city is Lorraine Mills, a repurposed mill building on the eastern side of the city, which houses institutions including Mixed Magic Theatre, Wage House (comedy club), Pawtucket Arts Collaborative, and Crooked Current Brewery. [22] [23]

Each September, the city, in conjunction with the Pawtucket Arts Festival Board of Directors, members chosen from the community, produce an annual citywide Arts Festival.

Pawtucket is home to McCoy Stadium, where the Pawtucket Red Sox, the Triple-A Minor League Baseball affiliate of the Boston Red Sox, played from 1970 to 2020. The team was owned by Ben Mondor until his death and was sold by his estate. The longest professional baseball game in history, 33 innings, was played at McCoy Stadium in 1981. [24] Pawtucket has a history of professional baseball dating back to 1892, including the Pawtucket Indians. The PawSox franchise was relocated to Worcester, Massachusetts, to become the Worcester Red Sox beginning with the 2021 season. [25]

In 1934, the Narragansett Park opened for Thoroughbred horse racing. Until its closure in 1978, the track hosted several important races that drew some of the top horses from around the United States including Hall of Fame members Seabiscuit, War Admiral and Gun Bow.


After the Puget Sound "Indian War" of 1855-1856, a number of high-status Coast Salish refugees relocated to Chimacum Prairie, south of Port Townsend at the northeast corner of the Olympic Peninsula. There they built a new life as neighbors, spouses, and business partners of European immigrants. The nucleus of this economically integrated, but self-consciously "Indian" (and specifically "Snohomish Indian"), community was the dairy farm of William Bishop Sr., a former British seaman, and his Snohomish first wife, "Lag-wah," also known as Sally. Not only did other mixed-ancestry households buy land or camp around the edges of the Bishop property, but William and Sally Bishop's sons -- Thomas G. Bishop (1859-1923) and William Bishop Jr. (1861-1934) -- became pioneer Native American political leaders: Thomas as founder of the first inter-tribal treaty-rights organization, the Northwest Federation of American Indians (NFAI), and William Jr. as an outspoken state legislator and first president of the Snohomish Tribe of Indians. Descendants of William and Sally Bishop and their Native and mixed-ancestry neighbors continued to live in the Chimacum area and to identify as Native American, many specifically as Snohomish, into the twenty-first century, although in 2003 the Snohomish Tribe of Indians was denied federal recognition.

A Tale of Two Wars

In 1854 a savage war was raging on the shores of the Black Sea between the western European empires and Ottoman Turkey, allied with Russia. Concerned that the Russian Imperial Navy might cross the North Pacific to harass British settlers on Vancouver Island, the British Admiralty directed one of its small Pacific squadrons to destroy the Russian naval operations center at Petropavlovsk on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula. The first engagement was a disaster for the attackers, who were beaten back by the big Russian coastal guns. HMS Monarch, an 84-gun ship of the line, under orders to reinforce the task force, arrived months too late. Meanwhile the Russians, although victorious, quietly abandoned their base, depriving the Royal Navy of a decisive battle. Without another shot being fired, the humiliated British warships dispersed to warmer latitudes.

The Monarch retired to Esquimalt Harbor on Vancouver Island to refit and re-supply. Two of its ordinary seamen, William Bishop and William Eldridge (1835-1902), friends since their childhood in Maidstone at Kent, England, slipped ashore, procured a small boat, and made for freedom on the American side of the Strait of Juan de Fuca. They eventually stumbled into the town of Port Townsend, which in 1855 was not much more than a few wooden cabins on the tip of the Quimper Peninsula, a projection at the northeast corner of the larger Olympic Peninsula. A few miles to the west, on the shores of Discovery Bay, was a large S'Klallam community whose principal ši?áb (or wealthy burgher) was Chetzemoka (ca. 1808-1888), called "the Duke of York" by the Hudson's Bay Company and American settlers. Like most Coast Salish leaders, Chetzemoka initially welcomed the business brought by settlers.

Coast Salish social organization, best described by ethnographer and linguist Wayne Suttles (1918-2005), was competitive and meritocratic. Men and women strove through professional skills and helping organize the labor and talents of others to make their names famous, gaining influence and amassing the good will, property, and creditworthiness that could be applied to future projects. Marrying children into distant villages was an important part of building personal wealth: each marriage created a new network of kinship and business relationships abroad, a subsidiary business. It would be said of a wealthy person, "s/he has a lot of friends," using the term (in the Straits language) sčé?čǝ? (pronounced scheh-chuh), which can also mean "cousins" or, broadly, "valued relatives." Coast Salish ši?áb arranged marriages with Hudson's Bay Company and American Fur Company employees in this spirit. The first arrangement of this nature in the Port Townsend area involved William Robert "Blanket Bill" Jarman (1820-1912), who lived with the Port Discovery S'Klallam community for some time and married a high-status S'Klallam woman in 1854.

American settlers in the Puget Sound area had meanwhile antagonized their indigenous neighbors. While Bishop and Eldridge were still rolling in the swells of the North Pacific, swabbing the decks of Monarch, American volunteer militiamen were burning Hibulb, the main palisaded cedar-plank village and trade center of the Sdu'hubš (Snohomish) people, located strategically on the river of that name where the city of Everett stands today. Hibulb appears to have coordinated a large share of pre-contact sailing-canoe traffic between Puget Sound and the Gulf of Georgia, and its leaders quickly recognized the value of partnering with the Hudson's Bay Company once it had opened its post at Fort Langley near present-day Vancouver, B.C., in the 1820s. Owing to their numbers, widespread influence, and friendship with the British merchants, the Snohomish were regarded as a threat to the recently established American settlements around Seattle, where they were blamed for sporadic murders. As 1854 drew to a close, Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens (1818-1862) authorized volunteer militia companies to roam the east shores of Puget Sound and "teach them a lesson they would not soon forget" (Bagley, 56). Stevens also directed Seattle merchant and local Indian agent David "Doc" Maynard (1808-1873) to re-settle Indians on the west shores of the sound, by force if necessary.

The destruction of Hibulb displaced many wealthy and prominent Snohomish families with strong business ties to the Hudson's Bay Company, making this militia action also a slap at John Bull. Among them were "S'lootsloot" (sometimes written "S'hootst-hoot," probably s'ƛ'uc?ƛ'ut, meaning "tied up all together," connoting wealth) and his teenage daughter "Lag-wah." Together with many other refugees, father and daughter settled at Deg w adx, another large fortified Snohomish village, located at Cultus Bay on Whidbey Island. Months later, about the time that Bishop and Eldridge learned that they would be crossing the Pacific to Kamchatka, S'lootsloot had to bear the additional humiliation of signing the 1855 Treaty of Point Elliott, that opened Snohomish and other Native lands to non-Native settlers in exchange for peace and protection. His signature can be found alongside those of his cousin "Snah-tahlc," also from Hibulb and known as "Bonaparte" to the Hudson's Bay Company for his imperious manners, and "Chief Seattle," who helped persuade his in-laws and business partners around Puget Sound to agree to a treaty, arguing that while promises might be broken by the Pastun ("Boston men," meaning Americans), they were better than nothing.

Bishop and Eldridge arrived at Port Townsend less than a year after the treaty, and Bishop served briefly in the territorial militia during the subsequent "Indian War" (1855-1856), perhaps better described as a police action against the faction of Puget Sound Native peoples that rejected diplomacy and felt that the Americans had to be driven away before there were simply too many of them to fight. While the USS Decatur was bombarding the dissidents' positions around Elliott Bay, Snohomish people were re-grouping and rebuilding on the beach at Whidbey Island.

William and Sally at Chimacum

There once was a Native village at the mouth of the creek that drained Chimacum Prairie on the Quimper Peninsula, south of present-day Port Townsend. Its occupants were not Coast Salish, like the rest of the Native villages of the Salish Sea, but rather a branch of the Quileute people who lived on the Olympic Peninsula's Pacific seashore. The "Chemakum" village of Tsetsibus and the other Quileutes across the Olympic Peninsula were separated ages ago, they said, by a tsunami. Proud and troublesome, according to Coast Salish traditions recorded in the 1850s by George Gibbs, the Quileute village of Chimacum was razed by a coalition of Salish-speaking villages in the 1820s, perhaps as retribution for Chimacum piracy along the critical sailing canoe trade route linking Puget Sound and Vancouver Island.

Not long after they reached Port Townsend, Bishop and Eldridge reportedly took the suggestion of an established settler, Loren B. Hastings (1814-1881), to follow an "old Indian trail" inland to Chimacum Prairie, where the two young renegade British seamen bought 160 acres in partnership (McCurdy, 135). Among the early non-Native settlers in the Northwest, "prairie" generally denoted treeless herbaceous meadows. They could be natural wetlands or else cultivated camas fields, which were frequently established in seasonal wetlands and kept treeless by the careful periodic application of light, flashy fires. Prairies were a magnet for early settlers, who could clear and plant them easily without cutting and burning rainforest. Navy Lieutenant Charles Wilkes (1798-1877) reported finding fields of potatoes growing around Chimacum in 1841, perhaps evidence that the Coast Salish victors of the Chimacum raid had maintained the gardens of the defeated villagers.

It is unclear exactly when or where William Bishop met S'lootsloot's daughter but it was probably soon after he and Eldridge settled at Chimacum. If some Snohomish were continuing to maintain and seasonally harvest old gardens at Chimacum Prairie, this may have brought S'lootsloot and his family to the newly fenced Bishop-Eldridge farm. By oral tradition among their descendants, William Bishop and Lag-wah married in 1858, although there is no record of the marriage. Their first-born, Thomas G., arrived in 1859, followed by William Jr. in 1861, and Elizabeth in 1866. "Lag-wah" (probably Lá?g w as, which can mean "points it out repeatedly," not inappropriate for a strong young woman who had survived war, displacement, and marriage to an exotic foreigner who was soon to leave her) meanwhile became known as Sally Bishop or Sally Klasitook.

Like many other young white men who settled in the Salish Sea region in the 1850s, William Bishop found a welcome among Coast Salish families eager to attract in-laws with new skills, as well as legal status in Washington Territory. Most Coast Salish people would not attain U.S. citizenship until 1924, and even then they suffered federal restrictions on their freedom and property if they were living on Indian reservations -- and varying levels of discriminatory treatment by their neighbors if living off-reservation. They could not file lawsuits, hold public office, vote, or testify under oath. Although it was possible to obtain individual dispensation from the federal Indian Superintendent at Tulalip, or from local judges, it was easier for Native families to absorb some of the young newcomers, who were mostly unmarried. In the growing number of mixed families in the latter half of the nineteenth century, women taught traditions, while the men worked and voted, and the children, if they were raised beyond the reach of the Indian Agents and federal Indian boarding-school system, attended public schools. Ceremonial events such as feasts, the "winter dance," and the Indian Shaker Church, linked reservation and off-reservation families, financed by dollars earned at mills and canneries.

In 1860 the first federal census of Jefferson County found 530 persons more than a dozen men had Indian wives or "housekeepers" (often not legally married). As immigration from the East Coast and northern Europe increased after the American Civil War, more Jefferson County settlers were married couples and marriageable "white" women. Indian reservations were also being surveyed, organized, and allotted, with growing administrative pressure on Native families to take up farming plots on reservations rather than earning wages at canneries, mills, and logging camps alongside non-Native neighbors. Mixed families, common before 1870, became unwelcome on the reservations, where white in-laws were deemed troublemakers by federal Indian Agents. (Such was the fate of Bonaparte's granddaughter Anastasia, married to the Scottish businessman Alexander Spithill.) By the 1880s mixed families were also unwelcome in a growing number of "white" communities, where they were denigrated as "squaw men" and "dirty siwash" (a derogative derivative of "Salish").

In 1868 William Bishop Sr. married Hannah Hutchinson, an Irish immigrant, who came to live with him on the Chimacum farm with his sons by Sally, Thomas G. and William Jr. Divorced or abandoned, Sally Bishop disappeared from local records until 1880, when she was enumerated as the wife of Charles Williams, a Finnish farmer at Chimacum a short distance from the Bishops with two young children by his first wife, Mary, also a Native woman, and two by Sally. In the 1881 census, Charles Wlliams has yet another Native wife, Cecilia, who is helping raise his four children by Mary and Sally. There is little further information on Sally Bishop Williams until her burial at Chimacum's Greenwood Cemetery in 1916, but it is likely that she continued to live in the Chimacum area, maintaining contact with Thomas and William Jr., who both self-identified as "Snohomish" for the rest of their lives.

William Bishop Sr. Grows Rich

The elder Bishop's fortunes grew. His Glendale Dairy produced cream, butter, and cheese for the seaport and military establishment of Port Townsend, and was increasingly shipped by steamer to markets in Seattle and Tacoma. Creamery income was reinvested in local real estate. As teenagers his sons went to work in the family business: Thomas in the dairy as a cheese maker, according to census records, and William Jr. on the farm.

By 1887 Thomas was married and living in Port Townsend a few years later he and his wife moved their family to Tacoma where Thomas owned a confectionary store. Later Thomas would build a career as a Snohomish Indian advocate for citizenship and tribal treaty rights, a role he played until his death in 1923. William Jr. remained at home in Chimacum, where in 1889 his father turned over the management of the Glendale Creamery to him. With the income from the farm, creamery, and, after his father's death, real estate in Port Townsend, William Jr. had the means to pursue a career as a Republican state legislator. First elected to the state House of Representatives in 1899 and to the state Senate in 1919, he was a fixture in Jefferson County and state politics until his death in 1935.

William Bishop Sr. moved in 1889 to Port Townsend, where he built and leased a commercial block on Washington Street in 1890 (as of 2017 the building houses the Bishop Hotel). He followed by buying the Roma Saloon on Water Street in 1894, and finally by raising a brick mansion for his retirement with Hannah in 1896 at the staggering cost of $4,000. Much of the commercial property was inherited by William Bishop Jr. when his father died in 1906.

The elder Bishop was described by some of his contemporaries as "a very energetic little man" with a distinct lower-class English accent (McCurdy, 136). He also appears to have shared a tendency to boastfulness with others of his generation of settlers, claiming that he had seen combat in the Bering Sea aboard the Monarch, which is not borne out by Admiralty records. As to whether he approved or disapproved of his two Native American sons' interests in their Snohomish ancestry and treaty rights, we have no evidence.

The Chimacum Community

The Bishop farm had meanwhile become a magnet for Coast Salish families and seasonal farm workers. Many other families of mixed ancestry settled in the Chimacum precinct after 1870, representing a large portion of the remaining off-reservation Snohomish as well as descendants of S'Klallams and Alaskan Natives, attracted by friendly neighbors, rich farmland, and wages at nearby logging camps and sawmills. William Bishop Sr. began growing hops at Chimacum in the 1880s, with the crop eventually rivaling his creamery as a source of income, and the annual hop-picking drew up to a hundred Native people from throughout the Puget Sound region to camp, work, and socialize around the Bishop homestead. Hops were shipped as far away as Chicago. As late as the 1920s, scores of S'Klallams and Makah from farther west on the Olympic Peninsula camped in the Bishops' apple orchard every summer on their way to salmon-fishing and hop fields.

In the quarter century that William Bishop Sr. dominated the economy of Chimacum, he was like a traditional ši?áb who made his name famous by establishing a new village. A dozen families of mixed ancestry coalesced around William and Sally, even after they had separated. The newcomers included two of Sally's cousins from a high-status upstream family of the Sqíx w ubš (Skykomish) people, William Hicks and his sister Boedah (1834-1928), who were siblings of "Tseul-tud" (Sultan John), a founder of the town of Sultan in Snohomish County. Their Skykomish River village apparently regarded itself as part of the wider consortium of villages centered at Hibulb, and judging from the number of signatories to the Treaty of Point Elliott, it was second only to Deg w adx (Cultus Bay) in wealth and importance (with seven signers, to nine from Cultus Bay). It is intriguing that the evolving Native community at Chimacum centered on descendants of women from two of the leading Snohomish villages at the time of contact.

The Hickses established their own settlement at the mouth of Chimacum Creek, identified in early photographs as an "Indian camp" complete with cedar-plank cabins and canoes. In 1877 Boedah Hicks married Edward Strand (1818-1910), a Finnish immigrant who had settled in the valley in 1852, built its first mill and farmed. Their five daughters raised children at Chimacum, forming a large extended family in which, according to an interview conducted in 1986 with three of her great-grandchildren (grandchildren of her daughter Clara Strand Woodley), who knew her and regarded her as a grandmother, Boedah continued to serve as cultural teacher. Descendants self-identified as American Indian, and continued to be members of the "Snohomish Tribe of Indians," founded by William Bishop Sr.'s sons Thomas and William Jr.

Another pillar of the Chimacum community was Martin Shaw, who first appeared at Port Ludlow as a 9-year-old boarder on a small farm. Shaw later took up work at Chimacum, boarded with the Strands, and about 1898 married Malvina Strand. Years later, Malvina signed an affidavit affirming her Snohomish Indian ancestry in which she claimed that Martin was "one-quarter" Tsimshian from Alaska. According to grandchildren of Clara Strand Woodley, when interviewed in 1986, William Bishop Jr. and Martin Shaw were fast friends, and their homes were the social centers of the Chimacum valley in the early twentieth century.

The elder Bishop's partner William Eldridge married a Native woman named Mary in 1859 and had six children. In the 1870 census the Bishops had seven neighbors with Native wives, and 15 mixed children in the neighborhood including the Strand children, while the Hickses were nearby at Irondale. Although most of the identifiable women in this community were Snohomish, they were on cordial terms with their S'Klallam neighbors at Port Townsend and nearby Discovery Bay. One of the names frequently encountered in oral history interviews is Patsy, son of the "Duke of York," who lived nearby and worked at the Irondale mill.

After Senator Bishop

By the 1920s, William Bishop Jr. was an influential state senator and the unofficial but undisputed leader and peacemaker at Chimacum. As one of Clara Strand Woodley's grandchildren recalled in a 1986 interview:

"Senator Bishop did a lot of that he separated a lot of deeds, both legally and physically, because he had a pretty tough hand when he spoke, you just dropped what you were doing and went back to business, and they all respected him, and I think he was one Snohomish Indian who you could say did take care of things, he spoke with authority, he had a big place there, he had a big dining room, and he would put out food for whoever was there" (Barsh interviews, transcription, pp. 6-7).

The fact that a significant portion of the Chimacum community was of Native ancestry, including a powerful state senator and owner of the valley's principal business, did not extinguish racial prejudice. On the contrary, Chimacum's old Native families experienced increasing social discrimination and ridicule as their proportion of the county's population decreased, and Port Townsend grew self-consciously more "white." Negative sentiment against Indians and "squaw men" was also building in neighboring San Juan County at the time, as described by James Tulloch in his memoirs. One of Clara Strand's grandchildren described going to school in Jefferson County this way:

"[W]hen we went to school, we were kind of ostracized down here, we were known as siwash clamdiggers, my dad took it on me . he was sorry he had ever married an Indian, he didn't want me playing with any of those siwashes, I always went to school with a white shirt and a tie, because he didn't want me classified as an Indian because I was white -- my brother and sister were darker" (Barsh interviews, transcription, pp. 4-5).

The publication of The Egg and I, Betty MacDonald's 1945 memoir of farming at Chimacum in the late 1920s, had the effect of outing and ridiculing the Native families of Chimacum in the growing hostile social environment of mid-century Washington. MacDonald wrote that her Indian neighbors were so dirty that she had to disinfect her home with Lysol after their visits: "The more I saw of them the more I thought what an excellent thing it was to take that beautiful country away from them" (The Egg and I, 212). She also lampooned the old-timers who were friends and in-laws of the Native families at Chimacum, depicting them as hopelessly incompetent bumpkins.

Four years after the book appeared, Albert Bishop and his children sued MacDonald for libel. Albert Bishop was not a relative of the Snohomish Bishops federal census records show that he was a white American of Swiss descent born in Utah. However, the negative public attention directed at the "siwash" Bishop, Strand, and Hicks families was so intense that the "white" Bishops felt humiliated as well. A Seattle jury found for the defendant, who maintained that her characters were not identifiable as the Albert Bishop family. Of course, the trial itself identified publicly who was being lampooned. One of Clara Strand Woodley's grandsons, who was in his twenties when The Egg and I was published, remembered the effect of its publication this way: "Well, it's all right for her to make money [but] it was a put-down for the Indian people, everyone that read it from this area was really hurt by it" (Barsh interviews, transcription, p. 6)

The popularity of The Egg and I, which was made into a Hollywood movie, helped to erase the memory of the Bishop brothers as Jefferson County "pioneers" who happened to be Snohomish Indian and proud of it. The final humiliation was not to come until 2003, when the U.S. Department of the Interior ruled that the aggregation of Native families around the Bishop dairy farm was not a "community," was not "Snohomish," and had no historical leaders or organization and that the treaty rights of Snohomish people could only be exercised by the enrolled members of the Tulalip Tribes, whether or not of Snohomish ancestry. The irony is that Thomas Bishop and William Bishop Jr. represented their own community at Chimacum as well as the Snohomish living on the Tulalip Reservation when they agitated for recognition of treaty rights from the 1910s through the 1930s.

When British sailor William Bishop jumped ship in 1855, he could scarcely have imagined that his sons would include the first Native American to be elected to the Washington State Legislature and the founder of the first inter-tribal organization promoting treaty rights. Or that his family farm would create the nucleus of a post-treaty Native community that would continue struggling for recognition and rights long after his death. In a further irony it was Thomas who moved to Tacoma, became what decades later would be called an "urban Indian," and yet focused his career on treaty rights. William Jr. stayed on the farm, with its Native farmworkers and neighbors -- effectively an off-reservation Indian community -- but chose a career in mainstream state politics that had him fighting for the dignity of non-Native rural citizens confronting economic change and marginalization after the First World War.

For the History of Our State's Food, Land, and People curriculum, click here

Sally Bishop Williams (center), with four young girls

Courtesy Jefferson County Historical Society (5.93)

John Fuge (left) and William Bishop Sr.

Courtesy Jefferson County Historical Society (Photo No. 1.546)

Indian home on Chimacum Creek, Jefferson County

Courtesy Jefferson County Historical Society (Photo No. 14.276)

Native American men picking hops in Chimacum Valley, possibly on William Bishop farm, Jefferson County


During the 1770s, smallpox (variola major) eradicates at least 30 percent of the native population on the Northwest coast of North America, including numerous members of Puget Sound tribes. This apparent first smallpox epidemic on the northwest coast coincides with the first direct European contact, and is the most virulent of the deadly European diseases that will sweep over the region during the next 80 to 100 years. In his seminal work, The Coming of the Spirit of Pestilence, historian Robert Boyd estimates that the 1770s smallpox epidemic killed more than 11,000 Western Washington Indians, reducing the population from about 37,000 to 26,000.

By the 1850s, when the first EuroAmerican settlers arrived at Alki Point and along the Duwamish River, diseases had already taken a devastating toll on native peoples and their cultures. During the 80-year period from the 1770s to 1850, smallpox, measles, influenza, and other diseases had killed an estimated 28,000 Native Americans in Western Washington, leaving about 9,000 survivors. The Indian population continued to decline, although at a slower rate, until the beginning of the twentieth century when it reached its low point. Since then the Native American population has been slowly increasing.

Witness to Devastation: The Vancouver Expedition

In 1792, members of the Vancouver Expedition were the first Europeans to witness the effects of the smallpox epidemic along Puget Sound. On May 12, 1792, expedition member Archibald Menzies noted “Several Indians pock mark’d – a number of them had lost an eye” (Menzies, 29). Commander George Vancouver (1757-1798) stated that two days earlier members of his expedition exploring Hoods Canal spotted “one man, who had suffered very much from the small pox.” He went on to say, “This deplorable disease is not only common, but it is greatly to be apprehended is very fatal amongst them, as its indelible marks were seen on many and several had lost the sight of one eye, which was remarked to be generally the left, owing most likely to the virulent effects of this baneful disorder” (Vancouver, Vol. 2, p. 241-242).

On May 21, 1792, Peter Puget discovered further signs of this disease on the Puget Sound residents. While Lieutenant Puget explored the southern reaches of the sound soon to receive his name, he met some Indians in a canoe. He stated that “Two of the three in the Canoe had lost the Right Eye & were much pitted with the Small Pox, which Disorder in all probability is the Cause of that Defect…” (Peter Puget, PNW Quarterly, 198). On August 18, 1792, while near the Queen Charlotte Islands, Peter Puget gave a summary description of the Indians of Puget Sound and the Strait of Georgia: “[T]he Small pox most have had, and most terribly pitted they are indeed many have lost their Eyes, & no Doubt it has raged with uncommon Inacteracy among them.” (Boyd, 30)

The Vancouver expedition encountered likely evidence of the havoc wrought by the epidemic. The expedition’s two ships Discovery and Chatham entered Juan de Fuca Straits and anchored at Port Discovery. On May 2, 1792, Commander Vancouver described the signs of a calamity at a nearby Indian village: “The houses … did not seem to have been lately the residence of the Indians. The habitations had now fallen into decay their inside, as well as a small surrounding space that appeared to have been formerly occupied, were overrun with weeds amongst which were found several human sculls, and other bones, promiscuously scattered about” (Vancouver, Vol. 2, p. 229-230).

In mid-June, while exploring Semiahmoo and Boundary bays on the east side of Puget Sound, members of the expedition landed near a large deserted village that they estimated was large enough for 400-500 inhabitants, “[T]ho,” Menzies stated, “it was now in perfect ruins – nothing but the skeletons of the houses remain’d.”

At the conclusion of this 12-day exploration Menzies wrote in his journal: “In this excursion the Boats went … about a hundred & five leagues. They found but few Inhabitants in the Northern branches but if they might judge from the deserted Villages they met in this excursion, the Country appeard to be formerly much more numerously inhabited than at present, tho they could form no conjecture or opinion on the cause of this apparent depopulation which had not an equal chance of proving fallacious from their circumscribed knowledge of the manners & modes of living of the Natives” (Menzies, 60, 63).

Menzies and other members of the expedition did not make the connection between the depopulated villages and the Indians “much pitted with the Small Pox,” but historian Robert Boyd did. Boyd conducted extensive research on the effect of European diseases on Northwest coast Indians. In his book, The Coming of the Spirit of Pestilence, he states that although there are several possible explanations for why these villages were void of human habitation (seasonal migration topping the list), the evidence provided by Vancouver and others who explored the Northwest coast strongly suggest a disease of epidemic proportions.

Native American Accounts

A few Indian oral histories survive that may describe the 1770s epidemic. In the 1890s, an "aged informant" from the Squamish tribe, located near the mouth of the Fraser River, related the history of a catastrophic illness to ethnographer Charles Hill-Tout. The ethnographer wrote:

During the first or second decade of the 1900s, the photographer of Native Americans Edward S. Curtis interviewed an Indian who lived on the northwest side of Vancouver Island. Referring to the time of his great-great-grandfather, the Indian stated that a disease beset the village: “So great was the mortality in this epidemic that it was impossible for the survivors to bury the dead. They simply pulled the houses down over the bodies and left them” (Boyd, 27). Although his informant told Curtis that the deaths were caused by an epidemic, others reported it was caused by warfare. So this may or may not refer to the late 1700s smallpox epidemic.

The Smallpox Virus

A person with smallpox (variola major) infects others by passing the virus through the air by coughing or by coming into physical contact. Once another person is infected, there is no way to stop the disease until it has run its course and the sick person either dies or survives.

One to two weeks after infection the first symptoms occur with fever, headache, and pains. About two days later, rashes appear as red spots on the face, hands and feet. Smallpox symptoms last about two more weeks. The red spots spread across the whole body and get larger, becoming pustular lesions. These lesions that look like blisters itch until they scab, dry up, and fall off. Survivors are left with deep scars or pockmarks on the face and body. It takes about one month after the initial infection for the disease to run its course. Those who survive are immune from the disease for life.

Worldwide studies show that the fatality rates to people never before exposed to smallpox are at least 30 percent of the entire population and sometimes as high as 50 to 70 percent. A vaccination to smallpox was discovered in 1798 by an Englishman and first used in Puget Sound during the 1836-1837 outbreak.

The Range of the 1770s Epidemic

The 1770s smallpox epidemic affected a large area of the Northwest Coast of North America ranging from Alaska to Oregon. In 1787, English fur trader Nathaniel Portlock noticed it to the far north. Upon entering a harbor near Sitka, Alaska, he expected to find a "numerous tribe" but met only six adults and seven children. Portlock stated, “I observed the oldest of the men to be very much marked with the small-pox, as was a girl who appeared to be about fourteen years old.” Portlock went on to say, “The old man … told me that the distemper carried off great numbers of the inhabitants, and that he himself had lost ten children by it …” (Boyd, 23-24).

The Lewis and Clark Expedition across North America found evidence of smallpox when they camped along the lower Columbia River. On April 3, 1806, William Clark noted in his journal that “an old man … brought forward a woman who was badly marked with the Small Pox and made Signs that they all died with the disorder which marked her face, and which She was very near dieing with when a Girl …” (Boyd, 29). Clark estimated this outbreak had occurred about 28 to 30 years ago (1776 to 1778).

Fur traders also noticed signs of smallpox farther south along the central Oregon coast. And signs were seen east of the Cascade Mountains. In April 1829, Hudson's Bay Company employee John Work, while at Fort Colville located in the Columbia River Basin, saw the disfiguring evidence of the disease. He wrote that, “Immense numbers of them were swept off by a dreadful visitation of the smallpox, that from the appearance of some individuals that bear marks of the disease, may have happened fifty or sixty years ago” (Boyd, 28). Work also estimated the smallpox epidemic occurred during the 1770s.

Spanish Explorers the Likely Carriers

There are various theories as to how smallpox reached Puget Sound and the Northwest Coast. Boyd considers three possibilities. One is that Indians hunting for bison or Indian traders traveling by horses carried the disease across the Great Plains and the Columbia Plateau. Another theory is that Russian voyagers carried smallpox from the Russian colony of Kamchatka in eastern Siberia, then along the Aleutian Islands to mainland Alaska and south along the Northwest Coast. Kamchatka had a smallpox outbreak in 1768. The last possibility Boyd considers is that Spanish explorers carried smallpox on one of their three expeditions undertaken from 1774 to 1779 from Mexico to the Northwest Coast. Boyd believes that the 1775 Spanish expedition was the most likely carrier.

The 1775 expedition was led by Bruno Hezeta, commander of the Santiago and Juan Fracisco de la Bodega & Quadra, commander of the Sonora. The expedition went ashore and made contact with natives at Trinidad Bay in California, at Quinault in Washington, and at Sitka, Alaska. There was evidence of an unknown disease on the Santiago.

The smallpox epidemic of the 1770s was the first and the most devastating of a number that were to follow. During the next few decades, less virulent but still extremely damaging epidemics, would attack eastern Puget Sound Indians again and again. Boyd documents the following:

    A smallpox epidemic perhaps in 1800-1801

Smallpox distribution, 1769-1780, Smallpox in the Pacific Northwest: The First Epidemics (1994), p. 9

Smallpox patient with lesions characteristic of the disease

George Henry Fox, Photographic Illustrations of Skin Diseases, 2nd ed. (New York: E. B. Treat, 1886), via Wikimedia Commons

Statehood and a disclaimer

Eventually, however, the situation improved markedly for Natives.

Alaska finally became a state in 1959, when President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the Alaska Statehood Act, allotting it 104 million acres of the territory. And in an unprecedented nod to the rights of Alaska’s indigenous populations, the act contained a clause emphasizing that citizens of the new state were declining any right to land subject to Native title – which by itself was a very thorny topic because they claimed the entire territory.

A result of this clause was that in 1971 President Richard Nixon ceded 44 million acres of federal land, along with $1 billion, to Alaska’s native populations, which numbered around 75,000 at the time. That came after a Land Claims Task Force that I chaired gave the state ideas about how to resolve the issue.

Today Alaska has a population of 740,000, of which 120,000 are Natives.

As the United States celebrates the signing of the Treaty of Cession, we all – Alaskans, Natives and Americans of the lower 48 – should salute Secretary of State William H. Seward, the man who eventually brought democracy and the rule of law to Alaska.


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