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I believe he stayed in the Aachen area.
It is a photo of my G.G.Grandfather who was born in Aachen, Germany in 1841 and died 13 Nov 1890. Thanks in advance.
As this map of Germany between 1815 and 1866, Aachen was part of the Kingdom of Prussia. (Aachen is just inside the border with the Netherlands, roughly just West from Köln.)
If your Great Great Grandfather remained in Aachen it is almost certain that the uniform would be Prussian. Your G.G. Grandfather's uniform looks to be a Waffenrock, the uniform adopted for most Prussian uniforms from 1842 until early in the 20th century.
Actually your Great Great Grandfather is a soldier from the state of Baden and it seems to date just before or during the war of 1870 when Baden had military sovereignty though they heavily followed the uniform changes in Prussia like many other kingdoms and states.
Now to go into detail on the table is the 1860 model Pickelhaube with the Baden emblem which would be used during the Franco Prussian War despite there being an 1867 model too and he himself seems to wear the 1867 model waffenrock with Brandenburg cuffs which was only changed in 1895 by a new model with a Pickelhaube of the same year.
Sources: Formations und uniformierungsgeschiste des Preussischen heeres 1808 bis 1914 Band 1 by Paul Pietsch
Can anyone identify these uniforms
My sister found this photograph in our cousins belongings. Our cousin doesn't know who the men on the bike are. We think the pillion passenger is wearing a RAF uniform but unsure of the riders uniform.
If any member can identify both of the uniforms it may help us identify the 2 young men.
Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thank you.
MWS I thought the same thing. It appears to have come loose - hence could be the same badge. However even with my magnifying glass I could not see clearly.
Master brummieAre they definitely British uniforms?? I only ask because I have a photo of two Canadian men in uniform with very similar caps/hats. Posted to England in WW2 one is a relative but we don't know which one.
Nice picture. Am pretty sure they are both RAF. The right hand man's shoulder - or at least his clothing - is slightly skewed which has distorted the eagle.. Two RAF aircraftmen, just ACs, certainly not aircrew, but there's no indication of their trade - mechanics, clerks, could be almost anything. Almost certainly WW2 or, just possibly, immediately postwar. A lovely English summer's day. Nothing in the background to suggest location but just possibly adjacent to some East Anglian aerodrome.
Janice makes a good point about other nationalities. But there would normally be an insignia on the upper sleeve saying, for example "CANADA" and I don't think there is anything there. Otherwise probably no difference in uniforms for all the nationalities within the RAF.
Thank you everyone for your help.
Although none of my family recognise either of these 2 young men, we did have an uncle who served in the
RAF - Aircraftman 1st Class.
Sadly he died in 1940 in a motor cycle accident returning to his ?regiment in Gloucester after being home on leave.
So he may actually be one of the men in the photograph.
Can you tell anything us about the life of this unfortunate young man, William?
Chris, if the rider in the photo is my uncle he was born in Cheshire Street, Aston in 1904.
All I know is that he had been home on leave in 1940 and was on his way back to his camp when he was involved in a motorcycle accident. He was taken to Cheltenham hospital where he died of his injuries.
He is buried in Witton Cemetery and there is a Memorial for WW2 casualties there with his name on it.
I only found this information from my family research and I know nothing more about him.
Prior to 1973 Edit
The earliest numbering systems were significantly different from the modern variation. Until the 1920s, when the NFL limited its rosters to 22 players, it was rare to see player numbers much higher than 25 (Red Grange was a notable exception, wearing 77 with the Chicago Bears while playing halfback, which would not be allowed under current NFL rules), and numbers had little correlation with positions (in 1929, the Orange Tornadoes subverted the system even further, experimenting with using letters instead of numbers.  )
The numbering system used today originated in football's past when all teams employed some variation of the single wing formation on offense. When teams switched to the T-formation in the 1930s and 1940s, the numbers were taken with them to whatever position evolved from the old single wing position. This numbering system originated in college football and was used only informally in the NFL until 1952 the backs were given numbers in the 10–49 range and the offensive line numbers in the 50–89 range. Earlier, defensive players wore numbers that reflected their offensive position, as many players played both offense and defense. For example, quarterbacks and halfbacks usually played in the defensive back field and so had numbers in the 10–49 range, defensive line numbers ranged from 50–89, while linebackers (who often played fullback or tight end on offense) could have just about any number. Split ends (precursors to modern wide receivers) had numbers in the 80s, and many would play corner back (i.e. Night Train Lane, who wore 81 as a cornerback). [ citation needed ]
The AAFC of the 1940s, which would later merge with the NFL, had a different numbering system with quarterback in the 60s (Otto Graham), fullbacks in the 70s (Marion Motley), halfbacks in the 80s, ends in the 50s (Mac Speedie), tackles in the 40s (Lou Groza), guards in the 30s, and centers in the 20s. When the AAFC merged with the NFL in 1950, the AAFC players kept their old uniform numbers which caused confusion and resulted in the NFL going to a standard numbering system in 1952. This resulted in many star players having to change their numbers mid-career. Examples are Otto Graham going from 60 to 14, Norm Van Brocklin going from 25 to 11, and Tom Fears going from 55 to 80. [ citation needed ]
The American Football League of the 1960s, which would also later merge with the NFL, used essentially the same numbering system as the NFL with some exceptions, mostly pertaining to wide receivers, who were allowed to wear numbers in the teens and 20s (as the AFL had a greater priority toward offense, the league often made use of flankers, receivers positioned in the backfield). The AFL's numbering system also allowed for the use of a double-zero as a number, which was used by future Hall of Famer Jim Otto, center for the Oakland Raiders after wearing the number 50 in his rookie season, switched to 00 which he wore for the remainder of his career. [ citation needed ]
1973 standardization Edit
The NFL imposed a more rigid numbering system in 1973. When it went into effect, players who had played in the league before the 1973 season were given a grandfather clause to continue wearing their now-prohibited numbers. New England Patriots defensive end Julius Adams was the last player to be covered by the clause, wearing number 85 through the 1985 season, but he had to wear number 69 when he briefly came out of retirement in 1987 during the 1987 strike. The 1973 system is still in place today, though some changes have been made periodically since then as team rosters have grown and as greater flexibility has been needed to deal with changing roster demands. [ citation needed ]
1973–2020 changes Edit
From 1973 to 2020, five major changes have been made. In 1979, the NFL allowed defensive linemen to wear numbers 90–99 and centers 60–79. [ citation needed ] In 1984, the NFL allowed linebackers to wear jersey numbers in the 90–99 range, since more teams were making use of the 3–4 defense and thus were quickly exhausting numbers for linebackers, who previously were only allowed to wear numbers in the 50–59 range. [ citation needed ] Another change occurred in 2004, when the NFL allowed wide receivers to wear numbers 10–19 in addition to the 80–89 range this was due to several NFL teams retiring 80-range numbers, as well as teams employing more receivers and tight ends in their offense. [ citation needed ] Since 2010, defensive linemen are allowed to wear numbers 50–59 this is in part because of the interchangeability of linebackers and defensive ends (a defensive end in a 4–3 defense would be an outside linebacker in a 3–4 defense). In 2015, the NFL Competition Committee allowed linebackers to wear numbers from 40–49. 
2021 expansion Edit
In 2021, NFL owners passed a rule change expanding available numbers and simplifying the numbering system. The current system now only has three different number groupings for offense, and three for defense. The changes included the addition of numbers 1–19 for running backs, 1–9 and 20–49 for wide receivers, 1–39 for tight ends and linebackers, and 1–19 for defensive backs. 
The NFL's current numbering system is as follows: 
|Number range||QB||RB||WR||TE||OL||DL||LB||DB||K / P|
The numbers used relate to the player's primary position when they are first assigned a number. If they later change positions, they can keep their prior number, provided they have spent at least one season at their original position, unless it conflicts with the eligible receiver rule that is, only players that change positions from an eligible position (such as receiver or back) to an ineligible position (such as an offensive lineman) are required to change numbers if they change position. A modern example of this is running back Ty Montgomery, who has worn number 88 throughout his NFL career because he began his career as a wide receiver. 
Additionally, during a game a player may play out-of-position, but only after reporting in to the officials, who will announce to the stadium that a specific player number has reported in (for example, "Number 61 has reported as an eligible receiver") to alert the opposing team, other officials, and the audience that a player is legally out-of-position. A 2015 rule clarification made it illegal to use unusual formations (such as a tackle split wide in the slot position, but still "covered" by a wide receiver) to obscure who is and is not eligible based on uniform numbers in order to avoid having to report ineligible numbers.
Long snappers typically will wear 40-49, with some exceptions, despite no official rule existing for their numbers. The rule book also allows players to appeal for exemptions to the numbering rules directly to the commissioner's office, which may grant such exceptions on occasion.
Many NFL teams have retired some numbers in honor of the team's best players. Generally when a number is retired, future players for the team may not wear it. The NFL officially discourages (but does not prevent) teams from retiring numbers, as the limited number of uniform numbers available for each position can be depleted. Some teams will hold official "number retirement" ceremonies, others have "informally" retired numbers by simply not issuing them. For teams that do not retire uniform numbers, they often honor players in other ways, such as team halls of fame or the like.
Numbers 0 and 00 are no longer used, though they were issued in the NFL before the number standardization in 1973. Quarterback Johnny Clement, running back Johnny Olszewski, and safety Obert Logan all wore a single-0 jersey in the NFL. Author George Plimpton famously wore 0 during a brief preseason stint at quarterback for the Detroit Lions. Jim Otto wore number "00" during most of his career with the Oakland Raiders as a play on his name, "aught-oh." Wide receiver Ken Burrough of the Houston Oilers also wore "00" during his NFL career in the 1970s. More recently, linebacker Bryan Cox wore 0 in the 2001 preseason with the New England Patriots for the regular season, he switched to 51. 
A Brief Cultural History of Uniforms
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What do Catholic school girls and Joseph Stalin have in common? They've worn a uniform to conserve their mental energy for a higher purpose than just fashion. Lately, this utopian ideal of dress has become trendy among busy and thrifty women in the rise of the work uniform. After all, sartorial sameness conveys gravitas in the office.
In theory, we should all be wearing uniforms. Fashion is one of the world’s nastiest polluters, second only to oil. The rich wear intricate clothing to peacock their wealth, depleting the lower classes of their innate power and self-esteem. High fashion favors taut, unrealistic figures, leaving the rest of us with emotional complexes about our bodies. Uniforms could alleviate many of these problems.
And yet, any attempt to standardize dress across an entire culture has failed. In 1916, US home economist Helen Louise Johnson proposed a Standardized Dress — as chronicled by Linda Przybyszewski in The Lost Art of Dress, it had a V-line neck and modest skirt, similar to Coco Chanel's dresses at the time.
Johnson was melodramatic about her quest: “Our purpose,” she said, “is nothing less than a freedom from a kind of slavery.”
Men benefited from the no-brainer business suit (and still do, damn them), while women were (and are) persecuted by the “pursuit of dress.” The Standardized Dress would end "the constant and ridiculous, troublesome and costly, change of fashion,” Johnson said. Women would finally be remembered for their faces and ideas, rather than their floral prints. Despite its lovely interchangeable collars, cuffs, and trimming that sustained interest with variety, the Standardized Dress never caught on. Thriftiness isn’t enough to stamp out the visceral craving among Westerners to showcase our individuality through clothes.
“Saying fashion should not change is, by definition, not making sense,” Przybyszewski says. “It’s fashion: It goes in and out! To put a stop on that just wasn’t possible.”
Even communists, not known for their style, flopped in their idealistic striving for a uniform. Mao urged his followers to wear the frumpy tunic suit to equalize the classes. Still, the People's Republic of China held a fashion show in 1956 that displayed gaiety and color. The fitted dresses were cinched at the waist in optimistic hues of mossy green and white trimmed with flashes of red. Women were so eager to copy the designs at home that they quickly sketched the dresses in their notebooks, according to Jin Lim, a professor of Chinese history at the London School of Economics. To our eyes, the dresses might look plain, but against the backdrop of Mao tunics — like an entire country filled with strategically ugly bridesmaid dresses — these frocks were gorgeous mindfucks.
An image from the 1956 fashion show organized by Chinese National Organization of Women Clothing. Photo: AFP/Getty Images
In stark contrast to the Mao suit stereotype, some artists living through the restrictions of communist conformity produced works of wonder. In Moscow during the 1920s, the Bolshevik artist-designer Varvara Stepanova created 150 textile designs. Her prints mesmerize the eyes with geometric optical illusions that create different layers of color and reality. Unhindered by the pressures of consumers’ whims, her mass-produced work “reached the level of real art,” wrote the critic D. Aranovich in 1926. Stepanova thought that the capitalist marketplace had a dampening effect on creativity, according to author Tansy E. Hoskins in her book Stitched Up. Hoskins imagines that we could have more daring fashions outside of capitalism: “In an ideal society the floodgates will open and everyone will be unrestricted.”
Communist societies didn’t always sustain such heights of creativity, so in totalitarian regimes, people ripped up and re-sewed their uniforms. Conformity presented daily chances to rebel. “People always are resisting resisting is a natural and inbuilt reflex,” says Katalin Medvedev, a professor of fashion and culture at the University of Georgia. “People were conforming because they were fearing retribution, but they were always expressing themselves. We imagine all Russians looked the same, but it wasn’t true. What did you do when the rules are explicit? You do little things, and people learned to read between the lines.” Russian women wore almost “too much makeup,” she says, in defiance of the monotony.
Costumes by Varvara Stepanova in 1924. Photo: Heritage Images
In communist Hungary, professor Medvedev’s mother discarded her state-distributed uniform and sewed her own fashionable clothes, causing onlookers to assume she was bourgeois. “Information always comes in like cockroaches in the smallest holes — there was no Iron Curtain,” Medvedev remembers.
The socialization of gender also makes an androgynous uniform one hard pill to swallow. “Women did not wear pants, unlike the propaganda. Women all wore skirts.” Even in the Eastern Bloc, “misogyny is a constant.”
Although womanly flourishes were influenced by the patriarchy, communist women also used femininity to assert their power. In 1950s Hungary, Anni Halmi resisted with beautiful clothes, as described in Medvedev’s essay “Ripping Up the Uniform Approach.” When children were required to wear school uniforms, Medvedev writes, “Anni believes that this move was intended not to eliminate class differences but rather to cover them up, which was indicative of double standards and the duplicitous nature of the regime.” So she bought a red rock-and-roll skirt from the black market.
“Beauty cuts across class, and that can be threatening for the status quo,” Medvedev says. “When communist women dress nicely, they show creativity and agency and show what you provided isn’t enough — and that’s very political.”
When Nazis occupied Paris, bringing their intimidating fascist military uniforms, French women responded by wearing platform shoes in defiance. “You can occupy us, but you can’t take our style,” Medvedev says. “Resistance has always been happening by altering uniforms because uniforms are really about control, controlling the body.”
It’s true that, when imposed from the top, uniforms are an aggressive form of domination. They smother the body in coded information, making the wearer become whatever the establishment would like, robbing individual expression. “Uniforms can be used and have been used throughout history to give people power and to take power away from people,” says Emma McClendon, assistant curator of costume at the Museum at FIT and the recent curator of the exhibition Uniformity.
“There’s a lot going on with uniforms that makes institutions accept them, but makes people tend to reject them,” McClendon says. “Imposing it across a culture, at that very level, it makes people nervous. When you’re in a democracy that fosters individual voice, uniforms go against that. In our culture, they’re shown as a symbol of control, and not creativity or expression.”
In the military and other industries, badges, stripes, colors, and symbols instantly communicate to the viewer whom to treat with the utmost respect and authority, and who is beneath them. “That can be as seemingly innocuous as a fast food clerk wearing the logo of their company, but it can also be used in social situations to control groups of people, to identify them and mark them out,” McClendon says. “If that enters into everyday life — that’s when uniforms get dangerous.”
Uniforms can be a symptom of malignant groupthink, like in the case of the Nazi armband or the KKK’s towering white head condoms (i.e., shield me from the world because I’m a shivering coward, hiding my fear behind a mask of hate!). In the United States, the biggest fascist threat — prior to our current one under Donald Trump — was the Silver Shirts during the 1930s. Coalescing around the rising tide of racism at the time, the Silver Shirts donned an eerily plain uniform of navy pants, black shoes, and silver shirts jazzed up with a scarlet letter — not for adultery, of course, but an “L” for the fascist doublespeak “Love, Loyalty, and Liberty.”
On the flip side, uniforms can also take power away from whole groups of people. Of course, prison uniforms do this. So did the perversion of the Star of David symbol to identify Jews during the Holocaust.
Some professional uniforms also undermine certain ranks. For most of the 20th century, the nurse’s feminized dress sapped her of professional power. By the 1980s, nurses were wearing unisex scrubs to account for more men entering the profession, among other reasons, McClendon says. “The notion that a professionally trained woman needs to look like a nun and a fashionable lady to be doing her job is problematic in the 21st century,” she says. “Now, you just see it in kinky Halloween costumes.” We tend to think uniforms stay constant, but that’s not the case — they are always morphing to be appropriate for their context.
What’s more, uniforms don’t have to be monolithic, dangerous, or imposed by the establishment. We can make them whatever we want them to be.
Death row inmates in San Quentin in uniform. Photo: Justin Sullivan/Getty Images
In a total reversal of the top-down suppression of mandated dress, personal uniforms have become popular across offices today as an outlet for individual expression. McClendon has noticed this trend in New York. ”With all the globalization and speed of communication, it can get so overwhelming, it would only be natural to see consumers wanting to slow it down to have more control or longevity,” she says.
The personal uniform has much to recommend it. Compared to constantly replacing your fast fashion every year, a consistent wardrobe is more cost-effective, environmentally sustainable, and sane. It gives people, especially anyone who dresses femme, time for other interests. Your uniform doesn’t have to look the same every day — it can sparkle with as much or as little variety suits your personality.
“We consider uniforms as stifling of creativity and individuality,” McClendon says. “Americans in particular pride themselves on the notion of individuality. Uniforms are used in movies or TV shows or novels as a formative tool to develop a character, whether it’s something as basic as the Fresh Prince of Bel-Air turning his blazer inside out. The reaction against a uniform is a very normal story for us as a formative moment in adolescence — where you find yourself by your distaste for the uniform.”
This belief is silly when you consider that youngins already wear a kind of uniform, but — this is mind-boggling — for the purpose of standing out. “I will never understand it,” says Medvedev, who moved to the United States to begin her academic career. “A punk girl doesn’t want to look like a sorority girl, but she looks similar to another punk girl. So there are these contradictory ideas of belonging and individuality.” In a sense, punk is a uniform, too.
Instead of drowning out your style among a patchwork of cliques or city tribes, a background of sameness is more striking — like the People’s Republic of China fashion show. “During the Cultural Revolution, a fashion faux pas could mean death,” writes Hoskins. “This meant that people studied ‘prevailing fashions down to the minutest detail with a singular intensity.’ Juan Juan Wu explains that rather than exterminate fashion, the Cultural Revolution produced one of the most fashion-conscious (to the point of paranoia) nations in history.” Death shouldn’t have to breathe down our necks to achieve the same cultural effect. On their own, uniforms cultivate our appreciation for understatement.
When you wear a personal uniform, peppered with small, affordable changes or twists — a new scarf or necklace or piping — those tiny gestures glimmer. Subtlety catches the eye against the white noise of fast fashion. When you think about it, maybe the best way to stand out. is a uniform.
Can anyone identify this uniform? - History
When the Penguins made their NHL debut at home on 10.11.67, the team wore the colors dark blue, light blue and white. Both the home (white) and away (light blue) uniforms simply had the word "Pittsburgh" written diagonally down the front of the sweater with three dark blue stripes around the sleeves and bottom. The logo, although not on the sweater, featured a hockey-playing penguin in a scarf over an inverted triangle, symbolizing the golden triangle of downtown Pittsburgh. The penguin and triangle were set inside a circle bearing the team name.
The following season (1968.69), the uniforms were changed so that the logo appeared on the game sweaters. The logo remained essentially the same, although the penguin was no longer wearing a scarf. The white home uniforms had a wide band of dark blue around each sleeve and the bottom, while the light blue away sweater had bands of white trimmed in dark blue.
The uniforms were changed again four years later (1972.73). The circle around the logo was removed, leaving only a penguin and triangle. Added to the uniforms were inserts of color on the shoulders.
On 01.30.80, the Penguins wore black and gold for the first time. With the Steelers winning the Super Bowl and the Pirates capturing the World Series title in the same year, the struggling Penguins hoped to gain fan support by aligning their colors with the other teams in the "City of Champions."
Boston protested the color change to the NHL, arguing that black and gold had always been exclusively associated with the Bruins. However, the Penguins prevailed by virtue of a precedent set by the Pittsburgh Pirates hockey club of the late 1920's, which sported the colors. The Pens' new uniforms were the same design as the previous ones, with black replacing dark blue and gold replacing light blue. From 1981.82 through the 1984.85 season, the team alternated wearing gold sweaters with white at home.
The black and gold uniforms remained unchanged until 1992.93, when the triangle and penguin logo was modernized. The white home sweaters featured the new logo on the front and gold shoulder inserts. The black away sweaters had the city's name diagonally down the front, much like the original team uniforms, with the new logo on each shoulder.
During the 1995.96 season, the Penguins were one of five NHL teams to introduce a third jersey. The Penguins' new uniform, which made its debut on 01.27.96 vs. the Philadelphia Flyers, featured a black background with a new, modernized logo design including innovative striping and a blend of team colors. This sweater eventually replaced the black "Pittsburgh" away sweater in 1997.98, and served as the team's uniform away from the Igloo.
During the 1999.00 season, the Penguins introduced a new third jersey with an eye for the past. The black sweater features the popular "skating penguin" logo, which the team wore during its 1991 and 1992 Stanley Cup championship seasons, and the newest color addition, Las Vegas Gold. That sweater, and its white counterpart, were made the team's official home and road uniforms, respectively, in 2002.
During the 2007.08 season, the Penguins began sporting new uniforms as part of the new Rbk EDGE Uniform System - designed to meet the performance demands of today's NHL player. After more than two years of research, the NHL and Reebok created a uniform system that features technologically-enhanced materials and fabrics that are more breathable, more water-resistant, more comfortable and more compatible with equipment. The Penguins' logo and colors remained the same, although there were some modifications to the striping on the sides of the jerseys. And, it wasn't just the uniforms that changed - the socks and pants were improved to increase performance as well.The introduction of these new uniforms at the start of season marks the first time in the history of North American professional sports that a uniform innovation has been implemented league-wide.
The Penguins went back to the future during the 2014.15 season, unveiling 'Pittsburgh Gold' third jerseys reminiscent of the sweaters the Penguins wore during their back-to-back Stanley Cup championship seasons of 1991 and '92.
At the outset of the team's 50th season in 2016.17, the Penguins announced that they would be returning full-time to a 'Pittsburgh Gold' color scheme, eliminating Vegas gold. The third jersey from the 2014.15 and 2015.16 seasons became the full-time home jersey, with an accompanying white version added for road contests.
The domain ".org" was one of the original top-level domains  and was established in January 1985. The other early top-level domains were com, us, edu, gov, mil and net. It was originally intended for non-profit organizations or organizations of a non-commercial character that did not meet the requirements for other gTLDs. The MITRE Corporation was the first group to register an org domain with mitre.org in July 1985.  The TLD has been operated since January 1, 2003 by Public Interest Registry, who assumed the task from VeriSign Global Registry Services, a division of Verisign. 
Registrations of subdomains are processed via accredited registrars worldwide. Anyone can register a second-level domain within org, without restrictions.   In some instances subdomains are being used also by commercial sites, such as craigslist.org. According to the ICANN Dashboard (Domain Name) report, the composition of the TLD is diverse, including cultural institutions, associations, sports teams, religious, and civic organizations, open-source software projects, schools, environmental initiatives, social, and fraternal organizations, health organizations, legal services, as well as clubs, and community-volunteer groups. In some cases subdomains have been created for crisis management. [ which? ]
Although organizations anywhere in the world may register subdomains, many countries, such as Australia (au), Canada (ca), Japan (jp), Argentina (ar), Bolivia (bo), Uruguay (uy), Turkey (tr), Somalia (so), Sierra Leone (sl), Russia (ru), Bangladesh (bd), India (in) and the United Kingdom (uk), have established a second-level domain with a similar purpose under their ccTLD. Such second-level domains are usually named org or or. [ citation needed ]
In 2009, the org domain consisted of more than 8 million registered domain names,  8.8 million in 2010,  and 9.6 million in 2011.  The Public Interest Registry registered the ten millionth .ORG domain in June, 2012.  When the 9.5 millionth second-level domain was registered in December 2011, org became the third largest gTLD. 
As of November 2019, according to the Tranco ranking of the top 1M global domains,  domains under org were about 6 % of the top 1000 and 7 % of the top 100 thousand and 1 million domains.
Internationalized domain names
The org domain registry allows the registration of selected internationalized domain names (IDNs) as second-level domains.  For German, Danish, Hungarian, Icelandic, Korean, Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish, and Swedish IDNs this has been possible since 2005. Spanish IDN registrations have been possible since 2007. 
On June 2, 2009, The Public Interest Registry announced  that the org domain is the first open generic top-level domain and the largest registry overall that has signed its DNS zone with Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC). This allows the verification of the origin authenticity and integrity of DNS data by conforming DNS clients.
As of June 23, 2010, DNSSEC was enabled for individual second-level domains,  starting with 13 registrars.
Since 2003, the Public Interest Registry (PIR) charged its accredited registrars a capped price of US$9.05 per year  for each domain name. The registrars may set their charges to end users without restrictions.
In April 2019, ICANN proposed an end to the price cap of org domains  and effectively removed it in July in spite of having received 3,252 opposing comments and only six in favor.  A few months later, the owner of the domain, the Public Interest Registry, proposed to sell the domain to investment firm Ethos Capital. 
Early Boy Scout uniforms were copies of the U.S. Army uniforms of the time. Scouts generally wore knickers with leggings, a button-down choke-collar coat and the campaign hat. Adults wore a Norfolk jacket with knickers or trousers. In 1916, Congress banned civilians from wearing uniforms that were similar in appearance to those of the U.S. armed forces with the exception of the BSA.  The uniform was redesigned in 1923—the coat and leggings were dropped and the neckerchief standardized. In the 1930s, shorts replaced knickers and their wear was encouraged by the BSA. The garrison (flat) cap was introduced in 1943. In 1965, the uniform's material was changed from wool and cotton to permanent press cloth, although the older material uniforms continued to be sold and used through the late 1960s. The Improved Scouting Program in 1972 included a major overhaul of badges and other insignia, replacing many two color patches with multicolor versions. Also introduced was a red beret and a dark green shirt for "Leadership Corps" members (ages 14–15) in a Scout troop. This was done to relate those older Boy Scouts to Explorers, which wore the same uniform shirt, but by the early 1980s, the red beret and the Leadership Corps concept had been discarded.
The Boy Scout uniform during the 1950s–1970s continued to have a monochrome light green (khaki-green) color for both shirts and shorts or trousers.
In 1980, a major change was made when a two-color uniform having a tan shirt with olive green shorts or trousers was introduced.  Designed by Oscar de la Renta, it continued to be the uniform until August 2008, when the "Centennial Scout Uniform" was unveiled.   The Oscar de la Renta-designed tan buttoned-front uniform shirt had shoulder epaulets and buttoned-down pocket flaps, worn with an olive green webbed belt with a brass buckle or a tan or brown-leather belt. The olive green cap had a bright red front panel and gold fleur-de-lis.  In 2006, olive-green "Switchback" zip-off trousers were introduced in place of the traditional trousers, having an integral belt assembly with provisions for either the olive green webbed or brown-leather belt. Socks were olive green with a red band at the top and came in crew or ankle lengths, or knee length for wear with shorts. Female leaders were provided a choice of slacks, shorts, culottes, or a skirt.
Explorers in the 1950s–1970s had a uniform of spruce green shirt and trousers, but by the 1970s many posts were developing their own uniform. Eventually only the shirt was available, leading many to wear the shirt with olive green Boy Scout pants or shorts. When Exploring was moved to Learning for Life in 1998, the new Venturing division used the spruce green shirt with charcoal gray pants.
For most of their history Sea Scouts wore modified US Navy uniforms. Youth wore the enlisted "crackerjack" uniforms, and adults wore officer's uniforms, both of which were usually for more formal occasions. The standard work uniforms during this time were dungarees for youth and officer's khakis for adults. Sea Scouts who had reached the rank of Quartermaster wore the adult uniforms, roughly analogous to a chief petty officer wearing an officer's uniform instead of an enlisted man's. In order to avoid confusion for active duty personnel, modifications were made such as wearing square knot insignia in lieu of ribbons, strips that read "SEA SCOUTS B.S.A.," silver brass instead of gold, and standard BSA insignia such as the WOSM crest, council shoulder patches, US Flag patches, etc. Notably absent from the uniform during this time were Order of the Arrow flaps. Due to being prohibitively expensive and hard to get after 9/11, Navy uniforms were replaced for a new uniform in the early 2010s.
The uniform had, for some years, been referred to as the "field uniform", but the BSA now uses the terms "official Boy Scout uniform", "official Venturing uniform" and the like. With the introduction of the Switchbacks zip-off pants, the trend is towards a uniform emphasizing comfort and utility.
The official policy of the BSA is that any uniform or uniform part which has ever been approved for use, is still acceptable. As example, there are some Troops who choose to distinguish themselves by wearing the red berets from the 1970s or the earlier "garrison" or "flat" hat or even wear the original army-style uniforms.
The uniform and insignia are variously protected by copyright, trademark, and congressional charter.  The BSA does allow usage for movies, television shows and other events, but this is done on a case by case basis. The BSA has rebuked instances where it was felt that the uniform was used inappropriately and without permission.  BSA rules and regulations also forbid the use of Scouting emblems for commercial or political purposes. Wear of the uniform and insignia is described in the various handbooks, the Insignia Guide and inspection sheets.    
Official uniform shirts and blouses are of the button-up style with a pointed collar, two front button-flap pockets, and long or short sleeves. Since 2007, all shirts come with a U.S. flag attached to the right shoulder and a BSA program strip above the right pocket.
Shoulder loops Edit
The yellow, tan and dark green shirts have shoulder straps (often referred to as epaulets) and colored shoulder loops (often called tabs) are worn on the straps to indicate the program level. Webelos Scouts wearing tan uniforms and all Cub Scout leaders wear blue loops, Boy Scouts and leaders wear olive green loops (changed from red in 2008),  Varsity Scouts and leaders wear blaze (orange) loops, and Venturers and leaders wear emerald green loops.  Adults or youth who hold a district, council, or section position wear silver loops those with area, regional, or national positions wear gold loops. Blue, red, forest green or blaze loops may not be worn on the green Venturing shirt and emerald green loops may not be worn on the tan shirt.   Custom loops are not authorized. 
A wide variety of insignia in the form of cloth patches and metallic pins are worn on the uniform. In general, patches that represent a position of responsibility or an award of merit are referred to as badges and all others are emblems. Other insignia is in the form of medals, ribbons and pins. 
Insignia such as merit badge sashes, medals, and pins are generally only worn on formal occasions such as courts of honor, award banquets, or as part of an honor guard.
Every BSA unit is entitled to a flag, with a specific design for each type of unit. Flags are split with a top half in one color and the bottom in another and the program emblem in the center. The upper half has lettering for the unit type and number and the chartering organization the bottom has lettering for the community and council. Cub Scout pack flags have a gold top half with blue lettering and blue bottom half with gold lettering. Boy Scouting troop flags are red with white lettering over white with red lettering Varsity Scouting team flags are orange over white with yellow lettering on both halves. Venturing crew flags are white over gold with green lettering Sea Scouting ship flags are red over blue with white lettering.
Dens within a Cub Scouting pack have a small flag with the Cub Scouting or Webelos Scouting emblem on blue or the Tiger Cub Scouting emblem on orange and the den number. Patrols within a Boy Scouting troop may create a flag based on the patrol name. The Sea Scout leader flag is red over blue with the Sea Scouting emblem centered and white rating stars: one star for a ship, two stars for a council, three stars for a region and four stars for national.
Local council flags are blue with gold lettering and the Boy Scout emblem regions have purple flags with silver lettering. The flag of the National Council is purple with a silver emblem and no lettering.
Square knot insignia Edit
Medals and the like are not generally worn on the uniform for everyday use instead, square knot insignia are worn to represent some national and local Council awards. These insignia pieces are small cloth patches with an embroidered square knot or other emblem that represents the actual award. The colors of the knot, the patch background and the patch border indicates the represented award. For the most part, the colors of the knot emblem are taken from the ribbon or design of the actual award. The knot is NOT the award, but rather an optional representation and recognition that the individual has received or earned a specific award.
Although they do not use a square knot insignia, the District Award of Merit and the Silver World Award award insignia are still referred to as "square knots". The District Award of Merit and the Professional Training Award do not have a wearable insignia item other than the square knot.
The vast majority of "square knot" insignia represents one instance of an individual's recognition. There are a few awards which may be earned or received multiple times (such as the Scouters' Training Award, adult religious service awards, youth religious awards, etc.) within different program. For instance, a youth member may be able to earn religious emblems as a Cub Scout, WEBELOS Cub Scout, Boy Scout and Venturer or Sea Scout. Small metal pin-on devices may be worn to show the membership division or the level at which an award was presented if earned more than once. The devices are designed to be worn on the medal's ribbon (if the award has a ribbon) as well as on the cloth square knot insignia. For example, the Scouter's Training Award may be awarded as the Cub Scout Leader's Training Award, the Boy Scout Leader's Training Award, the Varsity Scout Leader's Training Award, the Venturing Leader's Training Award, the Sea Scout Leader's Training Award, The Unit Committee Training Award and the Roundtable Staff Training Award the appropriate device may be worn to show the division in which the award was earned. Multiple devices may be worn if the award was earned at multiple levels.
Adult Eagle Scouts who met additional requirements toward a Palm to the Eagle Scout Award, may wear the highest combination of Palms earned on either the regular Eagle Scout square knot emblem or a special square knot emblem signifying their life membership as a part of the National Eagle Scout Association. This display is to not exceed six Silver Palms and a Gold Palm representing 100 merit badges earned over the 21 required to earn the Eagle Scout rank.
No more than seven devices may be placed on any one square knot emblem.
With the inclusion of girls in the Boy Scout (renamed to Scouts BSA) program, starting February 1, 2019 a new tan uniform shirt has been approved and is available for purchase. The new tan shirt features a red Fleur de lis symbol and red 'BSA' text in place of the 'Boy Scouts of America' text. Also available as an option for boys and girls are new olive green capris uniform pants.  The previous official Boy Scout uniform, known as the Centennial Scout Uniform, was named in tribute to the organization's 100th anniversary in 2010.  The uniform may be worn by adult leaders, Scouts, and Webelos Scouts. Introduced on August 15, 2008, to have a more outdoors-activity oriented appearance, the Centennial Scout Uniform transitionally replaced the previous version designed by Oscar de la Renta.  The BSA declared this uniform "transitional," meaning that those possessing the de la Renta uniform may not only still wear it (as is the case with any previously-authorized uniforms) but that they may interchange parts with the new uniform as well (mainly to solve issues with shirt and pants which were not ready for wide-scale manufacturing at the time). The uniform "transitional" status ended in 2011. Except as clearance items however, Council and BSA stores will no longer sell the de la Renta uniform.
There were two versions of the Centennial shirt. The first version was a khaki (officially referred by BSA as tan) button-front shirt with collar, bellowed pockets on the chest and featured a special technology pocket on the left shoulder. This was designed to allow Scouts and Scouters to place their personal cell phone or media player in that pocket. A hole at the bottom of the pocket allowed an earpiece to be to connected to the item. Many Scouters referred to the pocket as the "cigarette pocket" for its size and lack of real usability. The BSA redesigned the shirt, removing the pocket.
The current version of the Centennial shirt is a khaki (officially referred by BSA as tan) button-front shirt with collar, bellowed pockets on the chest and closed with hook-and-loop closures, and shoulder epaulets with shoulder loops in the color of the individual's registration (see above). All adults and youth males wear forest green or khaki convertible or Switchback zip-off cargo pants, which easily convert to knee-length cargo shorts with the pull of a zipper. Socks, worn with the uniform, are also forest green and have a black "B.S.A." monogrammed at the top and are available in crew and ankle lengths. The new official belt is a forest green rigger style belt with a black metal mechanical claw buckle – other belt styles, mostly in tan or brown leather, are also worn, while the hat, resembling the U.S. Army's baseball-style fatigue hat worn during the Vietnam War-era, is also in forest green with the B.S.A. emblem embroidered in the front in a ghost stitching.
As with the older Oscar de la Renta-designed uniform of 1980–2008, Boy Scout Troops and Varsity Scout Teams vote to select uniform options for the belt, hat, and neckwear. In place of either the new "Centennial" or older "de la Renta" baseball caps, units may choose to wear various headgear options: the iconic campaign hat (colloquially called the "Smokey Bear" hat, which hearkens back to Scouting's inception in 1907), a hat styled like the hat worn by Indiana Jones, a red beret, a garrison (flat) cap, or a baseball-style cap of the unit's own design. The beret and garrison cap are now rarely seen as neither hat has been manufactured for more than 20 years. Neckwear on both uniforms includes the neckerchief and the bolo tie as selected by the unit. A variety of official neckerchiefs are available or the troop can create their own design. Many troops now opt not to wear neckwear. Special neckerchiefs such as Eagle Scout or Wood Badge are generally worn on formal occasions.
Older, all-olive green uniforms from the 1970s and earlier may still be worn by Scouters who possess them, although parts may not be worn interchangeably with the current Centennial Scout Uniform or the de la Renta-designed uniforms. They are prized by Scouting memorabilia collectors from around the country.
The official Cub Scout uniform is worn by youths in Cub Scouting. The basic Cub Scout uniform consists of a navy blue shirt, navy blue pants, shorts or Switchbacks, navy blue socks with gold tops for Cub Scouts or orange tops for Tiger Cub Scouts, a navy blue web belt with brass buckle with Cub Scout logo, a neckerchief with slide, and a navy blue cap with a colored panel. The shirt has buttons, a pointed collar, two front button-flap pockets, and short or long sleeves. Lion Cub Scouts wear a unique blue T-shirt with large Lion rank image and 'LION' text. The insignia on the cap, neckerchief, neckerchief slide and belt buckle vary by section: Lion, Tiger, Wolf, Bear, and Webelos Scouts. The Cub Scout uniform originally was deliberately designed to emulate the uniform colors and design of the United States Cavalry of the 1800s.
Female leaders in Cub Scouting have the option of wearing the classic yellow blouse with navy blue pants, shorts, skirt or culottes instead of the Scouts BSA tan uniform. The yellow blouse, though, is less common since it has been discontinued for years.
Each Venturing crew votes on the desired uniform they may use either the official Venturing uniform or may develop their own. Other than emblems, crew developed uniforms may not use elements of other BSA uniforms and must meet other uniform standards, such as not resembling military uniforms. Venturers may not wear the Boy Scout uniform.  
The official Venturing uniform consists of the spruce green button-up shirt available only in short sleeves, charcoal gray shorts or trousers, gray socks with Venturing logo and the gray web belt with brass buckle and Venturing logo or the black riggers style belt with Venturing logo.
Original hats were the gray baseball cap or the gray bushman hat with snap-up brim, both with Venturing logos. These were replaced by the Venturing ultra-shield uniform cap in gray with a removable fabric shield.
Venturers may develop a unique crew emblem that, with approval from the Scout executive, may be worn on the right sleeve of the uniform.  
A male Venturer who earned rank as a Boy Scout may wear the rank emblem centered on the left pocket. Venturers who earned rank as a Venturer wear this rank emblem centered on the left pocket.
The Official Sea Scout Uniform is designed to make it easy for members to outfit themselves in a Sea Scout uniform. This universal uniform is worn by all youth and adult Ship members and serves as both a dress uniform and a work uniform. More details can be found in the Sea Scout Manual. Sea Scout Uniform Components • Navy Blue ball cap, No. 618623 with SEA SCOUTS and the Sea Scout logo embroidered in white. • Dark Navy Blue shirt similar to Dickies Nos. 1574DN (male) and FS574DN (female), color DN, dark navy. • Dark Navy Blue t-shirt. • Dark Navy Blue pants similar to Dickies Nos. 874DN (male) and 774DN (female), color DN, dark navy. • Black web belt and buckle with Sea Scout logo, No. 618624. • Black plain-toe shoes and black socks. Or, activity footwear such as boat shoes, hiking boots, or athletic shoes. • Optional Neckerchiefs (unit option) Youth and Adults may wear No.618625 black triangular design (unit option). The "tar flap" design, No. 618626, is reserved for youth only (unit option)
The Scouter dress uniform is appropriate for professional Scouters and all Scouting leaders on formal occasions. The current version consists of a dark-blue, two-button blazer with white shirt or blouse and heather gray trousers, slacks or a skirt. The blazer's gold-plated buttons bear the universal emblem and an embroidered Cub Scout, Boy Scout or Venturing emblem is worn on the left pocket or lapel. A black leather belt with gold buckle is to be worn with trousers or slacks. Silk neckties with red, gold, and navy stripes are available for men and women. Black dress shoes and black socks or stockings are worn with the dress uniform. Older versions of neckwear representing Cub Scouting (gold and blue striped necktie), Boy Scouting (silver and red striped necktie), Exploring (blue and red striped necktie), or all programs (silver, red and blue striped necktie) may also be worn with this uniform. A small lapel pin representing an adult recognition may be worn on the left lapel a small lapel pin representing Wood Badge or the Sea Badge may be worn on the right lapel. During formal events or recognition ceremonies, up to five pendant-type awards may be suspended from the neck by the individual. The actual Wood Badge is NOT worn with this uniform a lapel pin may be worn instead.
During the Wood Badge course Scouters, both staff and participants, wear the uniform of their unit and membership division this is a change from the older custom where the uniform was worn without insignia other than the council shoulder patch and the Troop 1 numeral. The uniform is worn with the Wood Badge training hat, the neckerchief and with a woggle made during the opening sessions of the course. The hat and neckerchief use the Troop 1 numeral to represent the first troop to use the Wood Badge program. The axe-in-log is the emblem of Gilwell Park where the first Wood Badge course was held and the Maclaren tartan honors William de Bois Maclaren, who donated the funding to purchase Gilwell Park in 1919. After completing Wood Badge, the beads, neckerchief and woggle are presented and worn.
Various insignia are worn by Scouts and Scouters representing unit membership, activities, accomplishments, honors and training.
Left sleeve Edit
The council shoulder patch (known as the CSP) is an arc-shaped patch worn at the top of the sleeve that identifies the local council. Below this, Scouts at the unit level wear a unit number and units with veteran status may wear a veteran unit bar above the numbers. Lone Cub Scouts and Lone Scouts wear the Lone Scout emblem in place of the unit numeral. On the new (2008) style official shirt, the badge of office is centered on the pocket, but on the older official uniform shirts, the badge of office is centered and touching the bottom of the unit numeral, or centered 4 inches below the shoulder seam. When earned for the current position, the green lettering Trained leader strip is centered at the top of the pocket flap on the new style official shirt, but on the older official uniform shirts, the red lettering Trained leader strip is centered immediately below and touching the badge of office. Qualified commissioners may wear the Commissioner Arrowhead Honor in the bottom-most position (or if wearing the first version of the Centennial shirt, immediately below the Council Shoulder Strip in the location where a unit number would be worn). Youth who are serving as a Den Chief may wear a Den Chief cord around the left shoulder and under the shoulder strap instead of the emblem. Den Chiefs who earn the Den Chief Service Award may wear the service award cord in addition to the den chief cord, and may continue to wear it for as long as they are a youth.
Right sleeve Edit
Official uniforms come with the US flag sewn to the top of the sleeve. Wearing the flag is optional—Scouts whose religion, tradition, or personal beliefs prevent them from displaying the flag are not required to do so.  Below the flag, Cub Scouts (including Webelos) may wear a den number and Boy Scouts and Webelos Scouts (as an option) may wear a patrol emblem. In the next position, Scouts and Scouters may wear the most recent Quality Unit emblem earned by their unit. District or council level Scouters may wear the most recently earned Quality District or Quality Council patch. Venturers may wear the official Venturing emblem or an approved specialty emblem below the flag. Scouts and Scouters at the area or regional level may wear a region emblem below the flag.
Other items that may be worn on the right sleeve include the Musician badge and National Honor Patrol stars. Boy Scouts and Varsity Scouts wearing a long-sleeve shirt may also wear up to six merit badges in two columns of three near the cuff.
Left pocket Edit
The space on the left pocket is reserved to indicate Scout rank. Rank badges that may be worn by Cub Scouts include Bobcat, Tiger, Wolf, and Bear. Webelos Scouts wear the oval rank badge when earned. Scouts in any membership division who have earned the Arrow of Light badge wear it centered below the pocket. Boy Scouts and Varsity Scouts wear their current rank badge centered on the left pocket. Male Venturers may also wear their current Boy Scout rank cloth badge on the official Venturing uniform shirt to age 18.
Scouts and Scouters may wear up to five pin-on medals that they have earned or have been awarded centered just above the pocket seam medals are usually only worn on formal occasions. Many medals may also be represented by a square knot insignia.
Square knots are rectangular cloth patches that use a multi-colored knot and/or border design to informally represent certain awards. Some emblems use other designs, such as the overhand knot for the District Award of Merit, but they are all referred to as "square knots". Some awards are represented by both medals or badges and square knots others certificates or plaques and square knots while other awards or recognitions have a certificate and a small device to wear atop a square knot emblem. Only a few square knots may be worn by youth, among them the Hornaday conservation award, the religious emblem or life-saving awards.
Scouters that have completed the Powder Horn course wear their silver metallic emblem suspended from the left pocket button.
Service stars may be worn above the pocket or top row of square knots. These are star shaped pins with an enameled number representing tenure in each Scouting division. Circular plastic backings represent each membership division: gold is used for Cub Scouting, green is used for Boy Scouting, brown used is for Varsity Scouting, red is used for Venturing and blue indicates adult service. Scouts and leaders with tenure as Tiger Cubs prior to 2000 may wear a service star with an orange backing.  Those who served in Exploring prior to 1998 may wear a service star with red backing.
All Scouts and Scouters wear the round World Crest over the left pocket. This emblem is found on the uniform of most other Scouting organizations and represents unity with other Scouts around the world. Beginning with January 1, 2010, the Boy Scout 100th Anniversary ring may be worn on the outside of the World Crest.
Right pocket Edit
The space on the right pocket is reserved for one temporary insignia, such as patches from summer camps or other activities, which should be centered on the pocket. Only one such item is worn centered on the pocket. Members of the Order of the Arrow may wear lodge insignia on the flap of the right pocket.
Official uniforms have a BSA strip immediately above the right pocket, with the adult uniforms and youth male uniforms displaying the text "Boy Scouts of America", and the youth female uniforms displaying a fleur-de-lis logo and the text "BSA" in larger typeface. There are several insignia that can be placed above the BSA strip, including interpreter strips indicating foreign languages spoken. Boy Scouts over the age of 14 in a Troop's Venture patrol may wear the corresponding strip above the interpreter strip. If worn, a name tag may be placed just above the BSA program strip, interpreter and Venture strips (if worn) or on the flap of the right pocket if no lodge insignia is used. Scouts or Scouters that have participated or have been selected to attend a National or World Jamboree may wear the corresponding patch centered between the right pocket and the shoulder seam. Order of the Arrow members selected to attend the Centennial Order of the Arrow National Conference in 2015 may wear the official Conference emblem in this location as an exception.
Visitors to all such events may wear patches for those events as a temporary insignia, centered on the right pocket.
Female Cub Scout leaders may wear the temporary insignia centered between the BSA strip and the shoulder seam.
Merit badge sash Edit
Boy Scouts and Varsity Scouts may wear the merit badge sash, generally on formal occasions. Merit badges may be worn on the front of the sash and the Varsity Letter with earned pins and bars may be worn on the bottom front corner. Additional merit badges and temporary insignia may be worn on the back of the sash. The sash is worn over the right shoulder and should never be worn folded through the belt, should not be worn at the same time as the Order of the Arrow sash, and should never be worn buttoned under the shoulder loop strap. 
Non-uniform insignia Edit
A number of emblems are awarded that are not intended for wear on the uniform. The emblems for aquatics qualifications such as Boardsailing BSA, Kayaking BSA, Mile Swim BSA, Scuba BSA, and Snorkeling BSA are intended for wear on the left side of swimwear, while certification such as BSA Lifeguard and BSA Aquatics Instructor are worn on the right side. Other awards such as the 50-Miler Award, Historic Trails Award, Paul Bunyan Woodsman and the Totin' Chip and Firem'n Chit emblems are intended as equipment decoration such as a backpack or on a blanket.
Spoof insignia Edit
Non-official patches, badges, emblems, shoulder loops and other insignia are readily available from third-party suppliers. These spoofs are parodies of existing emblems. For example, spoof versions of the "Trained" emblem include Over Trained, Potty Trained and Untrainable. Common spoof interpreter strips include English, Klingon, Brooklyneese and Southern Drawl, and spoof epaulets include a red, white and blue one for Eagle Scouts and a tiger paw for Tiger Cubs. Though not truly spoofs, another very common variant of actual BSA insignia are square knot emblems with spruce green, navy blue, or black backgrounds to match the Venturing and Sea Scout uniforms as opposed to the tan twill used by BSA National, which only matches the Scouts BSA uniform.
Properly, the uniform is referred to as the official field uniform. An activity or utility uniform generally consists of a Scouting related T-shirt, polo shirt or other shirt, often customized with a unit design. Activity or utility uniforms are worn when the official field uniform is not appropriate for activities or as directed by the unit leaders.
Members sometimes casually refer to these classifications as class A and class B, respectively. Such terminology is not used in any official BSA publications, where the terms "official uniform" and "activity uniform" are used. 
The rationale and history behind wearing ཱྀ' on your MLB uniform
(Getty Images) https://images.daznservices.com/di/library/sporting_news/ec/78/aj-cole-ftr-gettyjpg_68qgybml1p991808eeu5imq6w.jpg?t=700257749&w=500&quality=80
When A.J. Cole made his major league debut for the Nationals last Tuesday in Atlanta, he gave up nine runs, four of which were earned, on nine hits, with one walk and one strikeout in two innings. Cole faced 17 batters, throwing 55 pitches, 30 of which were strikes. The 23-year-old right-hander went 0-for-1 at the plate and got off the hook for the loss when Washington rallied for a 13-12 win.
That’s a lot of numbers, but the number for Cole that got the most attention was the one on his back: 69.
“I don’t have Twitter or anything like that, but I know people say stuff on there about it,” Cole told Sporting News. “Twitter and Instagram.”
Twitter is many things, but a haven of mature commentary is not necessarily one of them. The number 69 carries with it a connotation.
“Everyone said, ‘Are you on the offensive line?’ ” Pirates shortstop Jordy Mercer remembers of his time wearing 69 in 2012. “Or something about it being a football number.”
There’s the football number connotation, yes, but 69 also is a number with a not-safe-for-work meaning, and Cole is right that the market for high school giggles is robust on social media.
“I think people looked at it, and you’d get a quick chuckle, but I don’t think I got worn out or anything for wearing it,” said Eric Fryer, who wore 69 when he was called up to the Pirates in 2011 and now wears 22 with Triple-A Rochester in the Twins organization. “I remember Chris Snyder, he was one of the catchers up there, he was on the DL rehabbing, and my locker was right next to him. He saw that I had 69, and he went, ‘That’s awesome! You gotta get a tattoo or something with that.’ … I wish I had some better stories for you than just Chris Snyder razzing me a little bit. Other than that, it was just wearing it and hoping for a lower number at some point.”
That is the case for most players with high numbers, but not all. The player listed by baseball-reference.com as the first of six to wear 69 wound up wearing a higher number.
Jordy Mercer (Getty Images)
And, it turns out, Alan Mills may never even have worn 69 in the regular season.
Mills, who wore 75 for most of his career with the Orioles and still wears it as the pitching coach at Double-A Bowie, is noted by baseball’s most indispensable website as having worn 69 on the 1990 Yankees. The Yankees’ media guide, in its section listing historic player numbers, says the same. On Mills’ 1991 Upper Deck card, he is in his pitching motion with 69 clearly showing on his back. There’s just one problem.
“My first year, my first big league camp was with the Yankees, and I had number 69,” Mills said. “I ended up making the team. I had a really good spring, and the roster was extended because of the lockout. When we got to New York (where the Yankees opened the season against the Rangers), they wouldn’t let me have that number.”
Jeff Goldklang, president of the minor league ownership consortium The Goldklang Group, shared with Sporting News a Yankees scorecard from the end of April 1990 that lists Mills’ number as 28. In video of a game from that July, which follows a spell in Triple-A and getting called back up to the majors, Mills still is wearing 28.
So, what gives? Is Mills the first player in major league history to wear 69, or isn’t he?
“I was up and down a lot,” Mills said. “I wore 28, 45, 50 — lot of different numbers. I was on that Yankee Clipper shuttle (the Yankees’ top farm team at the time was the Columbus Clippers). They may have given it to me one time I was up, but initially, they wouldn’t.”
Ray Fink, a Yankee Stadium bat boy in that era, told Sporting News that he remembered the team having a rule, dictated by ownership, that no player wear a number higher than 55. It appears that this rule did not apply with September callups, but Mills was not a September callup. It seems likely that the photo on Mills’ baseball card is from spring training, when he had not yet logged an inning above A-ball, and thus was given such a high number. The uniform numbers listed at baseball-reference.com come from sources including media guides. The Yankees said that much of the numerical information in their media guide comes from a book called Yankees By The Numbers, and that without electronic records of rosters, they cannot be sure that Mills being listed as 69 is completely accurate.
If Mills never wore 69, it means that Cole is only the fifth player to don it on his back in a major league game — probably. Peter Munro is listed by both baseball-reference.com and the Blue Jays’ media guide as having worn 69 for Toronto in 1999, but also 13 — a similar situation to Mills. Munro could not be reached for comment.
What we do know for sure is that the Pirates have been liberal about 69, because in addition to Fryer, the number has belonged to Bronson Arroyo and Mercer in Pittsburgh. Mercer, in fact, got it the year after Fryer.
“We had a chuckle or two,” Fryer said. “The next spring training, I thought maybe I’d get a lower number, and I moved down a whole number — I got 68 in spring training, and he was 69. It was like, OK, being young guys and low men on the totem pole, that’s what you get.”
Said Mercer: “It was different, I’m not gonna lie, for sure. It’s something that I didn’t really try to get, that number, but when you get that call up to the big leagues, you’re not worried about what number you have or whatever the situation is. You’re so excited to be there, you’re living the dream. All the hard work’s paid off and you get to experience something that you dreamed as a little kid. The number is the last of your worries.”
That was Cole’s feeling, too.
“In truth, I’m not really sure (about having a number preference),” said the Nationals hurler, who was not surprised to get 69 upon his callup, having worn it in spring training. “I’ve had a couple of different ones — 11, 18, 19, 37 — it’s not really a big deal to me.”
At a certain point, though, a major leaguer does get a choice of what number he wants.
“Going into 2013, the equipment guy called me and said, ‘Would you like to change your number?’ ” Mercer said. “It was like, ‘Yes, please.’ I got to change the number to something more to my taste, something I like, and I chose number 10.”
Mills chose 75 for the same reason that he wanted to stick with 69 as a member of the Yankees.
“I wanted to remind myself never to get comfortable,” Mills said. “I always wanted to try to have the same mindset I went into spring training with as a rookie, where it wasn’t guaranteed I was going to make the team. I kept that as a reminder to never get complacent or content throughout my career. … At the time, when I was a rookie and asked them to keep (69) they wouldn’t let me. I’m a rookie, so I’m not asking any questions. I’m just happy to have a uniform on. Whatever you want to give me — you can give me 0 or 106 — it didn’t matter, I was in the big leagues.”
Mills was not allowed to keep his spring training number, and nobody else who has ever been issued 69 has wanted to keep it, except for one man — Arroyo.
“When I … got called up in 2000, they just gave it to me,” Arroyo said. “I didn’t say anything about it. It was a locker room at that time that was very segregated, very heavily dominated by the veterans. There wasn’t really room to ask for another pair of pants, much less a new uniform.
“They just gave me that number. … For me, it wasn’t a big deal, because for one, I was born at the end of February. I’m a Pisces. So, it looked like the two fish swimming around each other. The reactions I got for it were — well, the one I really remember — I was a young guy. I didn’t play that much, and I don’t remember a ton, but I was warming up one time in San Diego, and this guy was screaming at me. He went, ‘Arroyo! Yeah, 69! That fits you real good, ‘cause you suck!’ I remember that. I was warming up for the game, and it was like, ‘Wow, man, I never heard that. That’s pretty good.’ But I’m a superstitious guy, so once I got the number, I didn’t want to give it up.”
Arroyo, who is currently working his way back from Tommy John surgery, wore 69 for his entire tenure in Pittsburgh, making a total of 53 appearances with the number from 2000-02. That’s the most appearances by any player wearing 69, and Arroyo is the only player to wear it in multiple seasons. He would have extended that record, too, had he gotten his way.
“When I got claimed by the Red Sox, off waivers, they called me and asked me what number I wanted,” Arroyo said. “I said, ‘I’ve always been 69, so I’ll take that.’ When I showed up at my locker, they had 61 in there, so that’s how I got to 61, and I still have that number. They either didn’t have that in their repertoire, or they were like, ‘Hell no, we’re not doing that.’ I probably would’ve got chewed up in Baltimore or Yankee Stadium, so it was probably a blessing that they didn’t give me that number.”
It would seem that other than the Pirates, most teams would prefer to keep 69 out of circulation. The Nationals’ feelings on the subject will be tested when Cole returns for more than just a spot start — and he does figure to be back.
“I’ve played with him every year (since 2012),” said Nationals reliever Blake Treinen, who was traded with Cole from Oakland to Washington in a three-team deal in 2013 which sent Mike Morse to Seattle. “He’s got unbelievable stuff. He’s a big league player."
When Cole does come back, he does not plan to request a new number, nor does he plan to request to stick with 69. Whatever Washington gives him, he will gladly accept.
“A high number is a high number and a low number is a low number,” Cole said. “I’ve never really thought about what number I want in the big leagues or minor leagues or wherever. … The numbers don’t really mean anything to me.”
Many employers require their employees to follow a dress code. Employers regulate clothing, piercings, tattoos, makeup, nails, hair, and more. For the most part these dress codes are legal as long as they are not discriminatory. For example, men and women can have different dress codes if the dress codes do not put an unfair burden on one gender. However, even if a dress code is discriminatory, an employer does not need to make exceptions for certain employees if doing so would place an undue burden on the employer. For example, if someone's religion said they could not wear pants but they worked at a factory that required them to wear pants a court would likely side with the employer as the pants are for the employee's safety. To learn more about your rights with respect to dress codes and grooming, read below:
1. Can my employer tell me how to dress?
Yes. In general, employers are allowed to regulate their employees' appearance, as long as they do not end up discriminating against certain employees. It is very common, for example, for an employer to require his/her employees to wear a uniform so that all employees appear uniform.
In today's work world, more employers are requiring more formal attire. While in the last decade there was a trend for employers to be more laid back, and they allowed such things as "casual Friday," in the last three to four years, some employers are taking a step back towards requiring a more formal way of dressing. Many employers feel that more formal attire means more productive employees.
2. My employer is telling me how to dress, but no one else is forced to dress that way, is that legal?
No. An employer generally cannot single you out or discriminate against you. Dress code policies must target all employees, not just you.
3. My employer has dress codes for women, but not for men, is that legal?
No. Employers cannot single out or discriminate against a particular group of persons. Dress code policies must target all employees.
4. My boss requires me to wear makeup, and seems to have a much more different dress code for women than for men, is this legal?
While it is not legal to have dress codes only for one sex, but not the other, so far, the law seems to allow different dress codes for women and men, as long as they do not put an unfair burden on one gender more than the other.
For example, Harrah's Casino implemented a dress code requiring women to wear extensive make-up, stockings, and nail polish, and required them to curl or style their hair every day. Men, however, only had to maintain trimmed hair and nails. A 20-year female employee did not want to wear makeup because it made her feel like a sex object, and she was subsequently fired by Harrah's for not complying with the dress code. While this dress code seemed to discriminate against women and impose a greater burden on them, the court held that it was legal to fire the employee because she could not prove that Harrah's requirements were more burdensome for women . However, employees who can prove that the dress code is an unequal burden between male and female employees may be able to successfully bring a sex discrimination claim.
5. My boss allows women to wear their hair long, but not men, is that legal?
Yes. Employers are allowed to enforce different dress code standards for women and men. However, they may not impose a greater burden on either gender.
6. Can a casino, or other employer, make me wear a "revealing" or "sexual" uniform?
Usually yes. If looking sexy is part of your place of work's image, then sexy uniforms can be required. However, there should be a bona fide reason for your employer to require you to wear sexy clothing, and employers are usually not allowed to require sexy uniforms if your workplace has nothing to do with a sexy image. Some unions have successfully fought to prohibit their female members from having to wear sexy uniforms at work, but these are rare cases.
Requiring revealing or sexual uniforms where no legitimate business purpose exists may constitute sexual harassment. An employer may be liable for either sexually harassing employees or encouraging others (like fellow employees or customers) to sexually harass employees. If you feel that your employer's dress code has led to sexual harassment and violation of your labor rights, please contact your state department of labor or a private attorney.
7. Is my employer allowed to tell me to maintain a certain weight in order to fit into a certain size uniform?
Yes and no. In cases where there is discrimination between men and women, such as women having to fit into a small weight range and men being able to fit into a large weight range, the courts have ruled that this is not legal. However, it is not illegal to have a requirement to maintain a certain weight as long as it does not end up in discrimination between men and women.
For example, Borgata Casino announced that it will fire members of its "Borgata Babe" waitstaff if they gain weight. Further, the waitstaff is only given 90 days after pregnancy to get back to their pre-pregnancy weight. The only way that women are allowed a larger uniform, is if they have had a breast augmentation. Some of the waitstaff sued Borgata, but the court ruled that the policy is legal because both male and female waitstaff have weight limits and the waitstaff knew what they were agreeing to when they took the job.
8. Is my employer allowed to deduct the cost of my required uniform from my paycheck?
Possibly. Although an employer may deduct the cost of your uniform from your paycheck, it can be illegal under certain circumstances. The Fair Labor Standards Act makes it illegal for your employer to require you to wear a uniform, and then deduct it from your wages IF it causes your wages to fall below the minimum wage standard. Further, it is also illegal for your employer to make any profit on the uniform by deducting it from your wages.
Some states have passed laws prohibiting employers from being able to deduct the cost of uniforms from wages, but these laws are often narrow and do not provide broad protection. However, there have been successful lawsuits challenging employers' requirements that retail employees wear the clothing sold by their employers, in order to have the store's "look."
9. Can my employer tell me how to groom?
Yes. Your employer is allowed to tell you how to groom, at the very least to the extent that your employer is simply asking you to be generally clean and presentable on the job.
10. Is my employer allowed to require me to shave my beard?
Maybe. Requiring an employee to shave his beard can end up in discrimination, because certain races, such as African Americans, have disorders that make it more burdensome to shave. For example, men who have Pseudofollicullitis Barbae, a skin disorder that is specific to African Americans, experience pain when shaving. Several individuals have successfully challenged companies that have required them to shave their beards.
However, if you do not have a skin condition as a result of your race and just prefer to have facial hair for personal and/or appearance reasons, you may not be able to challenge this requirement, as it is not discriminatory as applied to you.
11. Is my boss allowed to tell me to cover my tattoos and piercings?
Yes. Many employers are worried that piercings or tattoos will offend customers and they are allowed to tell you to cover your "body art".
In Cloutier v. Costco, an employee who claimed her eyebrow piercing was part of her religious observance as a member of the Church of Body Modification, and objected to Costco's dress code policy after she was fired for refusing to remove her eyebrow piercing, had her legal claim rejected. The court ruled that the accommodation requested by the employee - to be exempt from the policy - would be an undue hardship on Costco, as it would adversely affect the company's public image and would detract from the neat, clean and professional image it wishes its employees to portray.
Based on this ruling, it will be very difficult for those who want to bring legal challenges to succeed, especially if the basis for their choice to be pierced is not a religious one.
12. Can my employer still tell me what to wear if my religion conflicts with my employer's dress code?
If your religion requires you to wear, or forbids you from wearing certain clothing, like wearing a hijab, or a yarmulke, or not wearing pants, you may have some protection. Courts have held that employers have a legal obligation to reasonably accommodate their employees' religious beliefs so long as it does not impose a burden or undue hardship on the employer under Title VII.
A court held, for example, that a particular woman did not have to wear pants at work because her religion prohibited it, when her boss did not try to make reasonable accommodations for her religious beliefs. However, when another boss did try to accommodate his employee's religious beliefs, a court found that a certain employee could not demonstrate an anti-abortion button. There have been a number of cases involving hijabs worn by Muslims and turbans worn by Sikhs, which have generally resulted in employers being required to accommodate clothing worn by employees for religious reasons.
If your employer wants to lawfully prevent you from wearing certain clothing, it must show that allowing you to wear this clothing would pose an undue hardship on the business. While customer preference would rarely, if ever, meet the undue burden test, safety hazards often will. For example, a factory may impose clothing restrictions for assembly line workers to protect them from loose clothing getting caught in the machinery or to protect them from getting burns. For more information on this topic please see our page on religious freedom.
13. Does my employer, or prospective employer, have a responsibility to provide me with a dress code accommodation, when they reasonably know I need one, even if I did not ask for one?
Yes. According to Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, employers must provide "reasonable accommodation" to employees requesting religious accommodations so long as the request does not cause the employer an "undue hardship." However, in light of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Abercrombie & Fitch Stores case, where a woman was declined a sales associate job because her hijab violated Abercrombie's "look policy" even though the applicant was not informed of this policy, the Supreme Court held that if management has even a suspicion about an applicant or an employee's religious views, it may violate Federal civil rights laws to not hire or accommodate that applicant or employee, while enforcing a completely neutral job rule.
14. Can my employer ban me from wearing union buttons or t-shirts with the union logo?
You may have a claim under the National Labor Relations Act if the employer attempts to universally ban the wearing of all union insignia, even in a nonunion workplace. Employers are allowed to set neutral policies which prohibit certain types of clothing, such as t-shirts with union logos if the employer bans all t-shirts, if the employer enforces the policy uniformly.
However, several courts have determined that employees have the right to wear union buttons and pins to work, with two exceptions:
if wearing these items creates a safety hazard or,
in the case of workers with public contact, if the employees consistently are required to wear uniforms without buttons and pins.
15. I feel that my employer's dress code has violated my privacy rights or might be discriminatory. What can I do?
While employers have a fair amount of latitude in enforcing dress code provisions, if you feel that your privacy rights have been violated by your employer or believe the enforcement of the dress code is discriminatory, contact your state department of labor, or a private attorney for more information.
Socialist Fraternal Kiss (1979)
Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev and East German President Erich Honecker kiss on the occasion of GDR&aposs 30th anniversary.
Régis Bossu/Sygma/Getty Images
During the Cold War, leaders of communist states often greeted each other with what’s called the “socialist fraternal kiss.” This could be on the cheek or the mouth, but the most famous example is French photographer Régis Bossu’s 1979 picture of the Soviet Union’s Leonid Brezhnev and East Germany’s Erich Honecker kissing on the mouth.