History Podcasts

Jane Smeal

Jane Smeal


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Jane Smeal, the daughter of William Smeal, a Quaker tea merchant from Glasgow, was one of the leading figures in female the anti-slavery movement.

On 8th April, 1825, Lucy Townsend held a meeting at her home to discuss the issue of the role of women in the anti-slavery movement. Townsend, Elizabeth Heyrick, Mary Lloyd, Sarah Wedgwood, Sophia Sturge and the other women at the meeting decided to form the Birmingham Ladies Society for the Relief of Negro Slaves (later the group changed its name to the Female Society for Birmingham). (1) The group "promoted the sugar boycott, targeting shops as well as shoppers, visiting thousands of homes and distributing pamphlets, calling meetings and drawing petitions." (2)

The society which was, from its foundation, independent of both the national Anti-Slavery Society and of the local men's anti-slavery society. As Clare Midgley has pointed out: "It acted as the hub of a developing national network of female anti-slavery societies, rather than as a local auxiliary. It also had important international connections, and publicity on its activities in Benjamin Lundy's abolitionist periodical The Genius of Universal Emancipation influenced the formation of the first female anti-slavery societies in America". (3)

Jane Smeal formed a women's group in Glasgow. Other groups were established in Nottingham (Ann Taylor Gilbert), Sheffield (Mary Anne Rawson, Mary Roberts), Leicester (Elizabeth Heyrick, Susanna Watts), Norwich (Amelia Opie, Anna Gurney), London (Mary Anne Schimmelpenninck, Mary Foster) and Chelmsford (Anne Knight). By 1831 there were seventy-three of these women's organisations campaigning against slavery. (4)

The Slavery Abolition Act was passed on 28th August 1833. This act gave all slaves in the British Empire their freedom. The British government paid £20 million in compensation to the slave owners. The amount that the plantation owners received depended on the number of slaves that they had. For example, Henry Phillpotts, the Bishop of Exeter, received £12,700 for the 665 slaves he owned. (5)

Jane Smeal joined forces with her friend Elizabeth Pease to campaign for universal suffrage. Smeal explained the problems she had in Glasgow: "The females in this city who have much leisure for philanthropic objects are I believe very numerous - but unhappily that is not the class who take an active part in the cause here - neither the noble, the rich, nor the learned are to be found advocating our cause. Our subscribers and most efficient members are all in the middling and working classes but they have great zeal and labour very harmoniously together." (6)

In March 1838, Jane Smeal and Elizabeth Pease published a pamphlet, Address to the Women of Great Britain, where they urged women to organise female political associations. (7)

The females in this city who have much leisure for philanthropic objects are I believe very numerous - but unhappily that is not the class who take an active part in the cause here - neither the noble, the rich, nor the learned are to be found advocating our cause. Our subscribers and most efficient members are all in the middling and working classes but they have great zeal and labour very harmoniously together.

Child Labour Simulation (Teacher Notes)

Richard Arkwright and the Factory System (Answer Commentary)

Robert Owen and New Lanark (Answer Commentary)

James Watt and Steam Power (Answer Commentary)

The Domestic System (Answer Commentary)

The Luddites: 1775-1825 (Answer Commentary)

The Plight of the Handloom Weavers (Answer Commentary)

Road Transport and the Industrial Revolution (Answer Commentary)

Early Development of the Railways (Answer Commentary)

(1) Thomas Clarkson, letter to Lucy Townsend (3rd August, 1825)

(2) Adam Hochschild, Bury the Chains: The British Struggle to Abolish Slavery (2005) page 326

(3) Stephen Tomkins, William Wilberforce (2007) page 208

(4) Richard Reddie, Abolition! The Struggle to Abolish Slavery in the British Colonies (2007) page 214

(5) Jack Gratus, The Great White Lie (1973) page 240 (12)

(6) Jane Smeal, letter Elizabeth Pease (May, 1836)

(7) Clare Midgley, Elizabeth Pease Nichol : Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)


Smeal College of Business news

STORIES:
-- Penn State Smeal Supply Chain Career Fair goes virtual, doesn't miss a beat
-- First woman to earn business doctorate at Penn State reflects on life as pioneer
-- Schreyer Scholar navigates global challenges while building clothing brand
-- Four student teams use AI for good to win 2020 Nittany AI Challenge
-- International students share their experiences of learning during a pandemic

Penn State Smeal Supply Chain Career Fair goes virtual, doesn't miss a beat
For the first time in its 19-year history, Penn State Smeal's Supply Chain and Information Systems Career Fair was held virtually, and it didn't miss a beat.

First woman to earn business doctorate at Penn State reflects on life as pioneer
Long before Jane Offutt Burns earned the distinction of being the first woman to be awarded a doctorate in business from Penn State, she was breaking other barriers.

Schreyer Scholar navigates global challenges while building clothing brand
Smeal College of Business student and Schreyer Scholar Austin Thomas used creative strategies to promote his startup brand during the coronavirus pandemic, and he intends to write his honors thesis about similar small businesses.

Four student teams use AI for good to win 2020 Nittany AI Challenge
Nyansapo, OpenVessel, AI Guide and Cyclone are the winners of the 2020 Nittany AI Challenge. Each of the student teams created a minimum viable product using artificial intelligence for good and were selected by a panel of judges to share a pool of $25,000 to continue to move their solutions forward.

International students share their experiences of learning during a pandemic
Penn State's international student population covers the entire world &mdash quite literally. More than 10,000 international students from 140 countries and six continents attend Penn State each year. Their experience with the new remote learning is unique &mdash and many times challenging.

Coronavirus updates
Stay up-to-date on the latest information from Penn State regarding the global coronavirus outbreak.
https://news.psu.edu/link/14_LFBFQ

The Smeal College of Business Headlines Issue is brought to you regularly as a service of Penn State News and Media Relations, and the Smeal College of Business. Since its inception in 1953, Smeal has offered highly ranked undergraduate, graduate, doctoral and executive education opportunities to its students.

For the latest on Penn State-related news and events from across the University and around the world, follow us on Facebook and Twitter.


The Smeall Family Bible

Numerous enquiries relating to local history and archaeology sent to the Forum website. One of the most interesting was from Barbara Triplett-Decrease from Michigan. The enquiry, with a remarkable outcome, was dealt with by Peter Crawford.

Barbara had in her possession an old family Bible, printed by Mark Baskett in 1763, with births and marriages of a Paisley family surnamed Smeal /Smail. The earliest entry was the birth of James Smeal in 1761. Another family member, Thomas Smeal married Jane Watson in Thread Street, Paisley in 1820. Their son, Robert Smail, who was born in 1830, was married in America.

The earliest entries in the Smeall family Bible

Barbara had attempted to find descendants of the family in Canada and U.S.A. without success. Because the Smeall family could not be traced she was keen that the Bible should be returned to Paisley and sent it to Peter. Peter contacted Paisley Heritage Centre, who were keen to accept the Bible and add it to their archives. Paisley Library had the Bible rebound and arrangements were made for Barbara to present the Bible to the Heritage Centre on her proposed visit to Paisley in September.

On 19 th September 2016, at a ceremony held in Paisley Heritage Centre, Barbara formally presented the Bible to Provost Anne Hall. The beautifully rebound Smeall Family Bible will now be part of the Renfrewshire Archives.


The DRBs Women's History Group based at the Adult Learning Project in Edinburgh have been researching four Quaker women (Priscilla Bright McLaren, Eliza Wigham, Elizabeth Pease Nichol and Jane Smeal Wigham) who all lived in Edinburgh, and helped campaign for the emancipation of slaves and went on to start the Edinburgh chapter of the National Society for Women's Suffrage. The aim of this event is to celebrate and raise awareness of what these women achieved during their remarkable lives.

All attendees will need to be members of City of Edinburgh Libraries in order to access internet on the library's computers or the wifi by using their own laptops. For more information in how to join the library please click here.

Training on how to create and edit Wikipedia pages will be given at the event.


Last name: Smeal

This name, with variant spellings Smale, Small, Smalles, Smalls, and Smeal(l), derives from the Old English pre 7th Century "Smael" meaning "small, slender or thin", and was originally given as a nickname to one of slight stature. The surname was first recorded in the early part of the 13th Century, (see below). One, Robert le Small of Huntingdonshire and a Henry le Smale of Cambridgeshire were recorded in the Hundred Rolls of those counties in 1273. Nicholas Smale or Small was entered in "The Oxford University Register" in 1508. --> On March 6th 1545, Jane Smales, an enfant, was christened in St. Margaret's Church, Westminster, London. Henry, son of John and Alice Smailes, was christened on December 9th 1638 at St. Michael's, Bassishaw, London, and Elizabeth Mary, daughter of John and Mary Smails, was christened on January 2nd 1778 at St. George the East, Stepney, London. The final "s" on the name indicates the patronymic and is a reduced form of "son of". The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Smale, which was dated 1221 - "The Pipe Rolls of Cambridgeshire", during the reign of King Henry 111, known as "The Frenchman", 1216 - 1272. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.

© Copyright: Name Origin Research 1980 - 2017


Jane Smeal - History

Welcome to my Ancestry Project. My name is Jerry Milo Johnson. This website is dedicated to sharing research into my family history.

If you would, please sign my guestbook, to give me an idea of who is visiting, and from where, I would be grateful.

My family mostly originated in Ireland, Scotland and England, with a some German and “other” thrown in. They include the surnames of Johnson, Masters, Teeple, White, Finley, Graham, Hastings, Panknin, Armstrong and Pike.

There are currently over 23000 individuals, 8500 familes and over 2200 photos. But this is just a start.

If you have any family photos, copies of documents such as birth certificates, marriage certificates, death certificates, family stories, family bibles, journals, letters, etc. please send copies to me as I would like to preserve any and all information for future generations of our family. I will pay for all copying, shipping, and photo restoration work needed. If you would like copies of any of my information, just let me know.

PLEASE NOTE: You will need to be a registered user and logged in before being able to view information and pictures of ‘living individuals’ on this site. Registering for an account is as simple as filling out the registration form. “Living” individuals include people I do not have any date information on, regardless of how far in the past they lived.

Disclaimer: The data on these pages is compiled from various sources, many of which conflict. Not all has been authenticated. I would appreciate any feedback, corrections or information to add. You can e-mail me from the Talk Back page. — Jerry Milo Johnson


Five Smeal Alumni Honored as Alumni Fellows

Several Smeal College of Business alumni were honored with Penn State Alumni Fellow awards on Oct. 16 for their outstanding professional accomplishments: Anthony Buzzelli ’71, Jane A. Leipold ’82, ’88g, Matthew W. Schuyler ’87, Andrew M. Sieg ’89, and Simon Ziff ’87.

In addition to recognizing alumni for contributions to their professions and to the world, the Alumni Fellow program provides an opportunity to bring these alumni back to campus to connect with students, faculty, and administrators.

“It’s such a privilege for us to have the opportunity both to honor these prominent alumni and to provide our students with the experience to learn from their distinguished careers,” said Jennifer Eury, director of alumni relations for Smeal. “Opportunities like this are representative of the impact of the Penn State and Smeal alumni network.”

- Buzzelli is retired vice chairman and regional managing partner of Deloitte LLP for the Pacific Southwest. While on campus, he took part in a small round-table discussion with second-year MBAs on the realities of a career in consulting. Buzzelli also serves on Smeal’s Board of Visitors.

- Leipold is senior vice president of human resources at TE Connectivity. As part of her visit, she spoke to first-year MBA students during their Career Immersion week about human resources’ role in recruitment and hiring.

- Schuyler is chief human resources officer for Hilton Worldwide. He serves on the Smeal Board of Visitors.

- Sieg is head of Global Wealth and Retirement Solutions for Bank of America Merrill Lynch and is a member of the Bank of America Operating Committee. While on campus, he took some time to meet with the Nittany Lion Fund students as well as some Penn State Investment Association and Wall Street Boot Camp participants.

- Ziff is the president of Ackman-Ziff, one of the nation’s leading real estate intermediaries, headquartered in New York City. As part of his visit, he met with students interested in the field of real estate to talk about career paths he also had lunch with first-year MBA students as part of their career immersion week to talk about leadership.

For full biographies of all the University's Alumni Fellows, as well as the text of their acceptance speeches, visit the Penn State Alumni Association website. The Alumni Fellow award is the highest award given by the Penn State Alumni Association. Since the award was established in 1973, more than 700 alumni have been honored with the title of Alumni Fellow, designated a permanent and lifelong title by the Penn State Board of Trustees.

About the Penn State Smeal College of Business:

The Penn State Smeal College of Business is a vibrant intellectual community offering highly ranked undergraduate, graduate, doctoral, and executive education opportunities to more than 6,000 students from across the country and around the world. Since our introduction in 1953, we have prepared more than 75,000 students for professional success, annually adding to Penn State's vast alumni network. We are a destination of choice for top global organizations seeking talent that will make a positive difference. Through our leading faculty and network of research centers and institutes, we are a source of knowledge that influences the business practices of tomorrow. We are forging connections, creating opportunities, and producing results.


Department Profile [ edit | edit source ]

Operations [ edit | edit source ]

Upon amalgamation in 1998, Toronto Fire re-organized all of their current and acquired stations into four divisions North (1), East (2), South (3), and West (4). Each division is overseen by one Division Commander and four Platoon Chiefs (one for each shift) and is divided into three or four districts. All stations and apparatus were renumbered according to the divisions and districts established. TFS employs 3,000 civilian and uniformed employees and responded to over 130,000 emergency calls in 2018.

Rank Structure [ edit | edit source ]

  1. Fire Chief - Chief Officer that oversees the entire department.
  2. Deputy Chief - Chief Officer that is second-in-command to the Fire Chief. There are five Deputy Chiefs, each responsible for a specific portfolio.
  3. Division Commander - Command Officer for all four shifts within one division.
  4. Platoon Chief - Command Officer for all districts and stations within one division for one shift
  5. District Chief - Command Officer for all stations within one district
  6. Captain - Company Officer for one apparatus or company
  7. Acting Captain - Substitute Company Officer for one apparatus or company
  8. Senior Firefighter
  9. Firefighter
  10. Probationary Firefighter

Fleet [ edit | edit source ]

TFS currently operates 82 fire stations (including one seasonal station), comprised of the following:

  • 54 Pumper Companies
    • 22 Pumpers (113, 116, 123, 125, 131, 143, 212, 223, 234, 242, 244, 245, 324, 334, 335, 342, 415, 422, 426, 431, 432, 443)
    • 32 Rescue pumpers (111, 114, 121, 132, 135, 141, 142, 145, 146, 211, 221, 222, 226, 227, 232, 233, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 322, 323, 325, 331, 332, 333, 343, 344, 433, 442, 445)
    • 2 100' Rear-Mount Ladders (L315, L331)
    • 4 105' Rear-Mount Ladders (L226, L312, L325, L426)
    • 1 75' Rear-Mount Quint (A222)
    • 19 105' Rear-Mount Quints (A113, A125?, A133, A135, A142, A213, A215, A231, A244, A322, A324?, A341, A345, A411, A415, A421, A423, A433, A441)
    • 1 100' Rear-Mount Platform Quint (PL432)
    • 2 114' Articulating Platform Quints (T114, T333)

    The five-digit numbers in brackets are TFS Shop numbers. The first two digits identify the type of apparatus and the remainder three digits are department ID numbers.

    • 10### - Fireboat
    • 20### - District or Platoon Chief
    • 24### - Pumper
    • 25### - Rescue Pumper
    • 26### - Aerial (w/o pump/tank)
    • 27### - Aerial (quint)
    • 28### - Rescue Squad
    • 30### - Support Vehicle

    Congress is Finally Breaking Ground in the Fight for a National Women’s History Museum

    Rep. Carolyn B. Maloney (D-NY) still remembers the trip to the National Mall that inspired HR 1980. &ldquoI found myself asking, &lsquoWhere are the women?&rsquo&rdquo she told reporters at a press conference Monday.

    &ldquoIf we fail to recognize women, we cannot empower them,&rdquo she said. &ldquoBut women&rsquos stories have been largely excluded from history textbooks. Out of 2,500 national historic landmarks across the country&mdashonly five percent are dedicated to women&rsquos accomplishments. Seeing role models doing things we all aspire to can change the course of someone&rsquos life. Women and men of all ages deserve to see and be inspired by the remarkable women who helped shape this nation.&rdquo

    Maloney wrote the first bill for establishing a diverse, complex women&rsquos history museum over 20 years ago, in 1998. No such museum exists yet in the U.S., and only 5 percent of the country&rsquos approximately 2,400 national monuments honor women.

    &ldquoThis is about giving women&mdashall women&mdashour rightful place in history,&rdquo Maloney declared Monday.

    &ldquoU.S. history is not complete without women&rsquos history,&rdquo American Museum of Women&rsquos History Congressional Commission Chair Jane Abraham said in a statement Tuesday. &ldquoThe contributions of women deserve national celebration and recognition. The history of American women is diverse. Women span every race, class, ethnicity, religion, political affiliation, region of the country and interest. There are so many stories from so many perspectives that are missing from our current narrative. The Smithsonian is the right institution&mdashour national caretaker of American history&mdashto tell these stories.&rdquo

    The Smithsonian Women&rsquos History Museum Act, which is expected to finally pass today during a floor vote in the House, would finally entrust the institution with that responsibility.

    &ldquoThere are so many vital and inspiring moments in women&rsquos history that deserve to be highlighted so that present and future generations know the true scope of women&rsquos accomplishments throughout our history,&rdquo Eleanor Smeal, president of the Feminist Majority Foundation and publisher of Ms., said in a statement Monday. &ldquoIf we do not publicly recognize and honor the women who helped shape our country, we are distorting our nation&rsquos history.&rdquo

    HR 1980 passed unanimously out of the Committee on House Administration in November and now has 293 cosponsors. The Senate companion (S. 959) has already been introduced by Senators Susan Collins (R-ME) and Dianne Feinstein (D-CA). Once passed and if signed by the president, it would establish a women&rsquos history museum on or in close proximity to the U.S. Capitol&rsquos National Statuary Hall, where only nine out of 100 statues depict women.

    Rep. Eleanor Holmes Norton, who co-sponsored HR 1980, declared at the press conference Monday that &ldquoour country should know the names of its history-making women,&rdquo and connected this victory to the suffrage centennial feminists across the country are also ringing in this year. &ldquoWomen have helped the United States since our founding, despite not being recognized for our many accomplishments,&rdquo she said. &ldquoOn the 100th anniversary of women&rsquos suffrage, we remember that women were arrested and jailed simply for demanding the right to vote. The Smithsonian Women&rsquos History Museum Act will memorialize these and many other women who deserve to be recognized in American history.&rdquo

    Feminists are already celebrating the long overdue and now imminent victory. &ldquoThis is excellent progress in bringing women&rsquos achievements and stories to light,&rdquo Smeal said. &ldquoWe look forward to watching the project unfold and will be first in line when construction is completed and the museum opens to the public.&rdquo


    July 9, 1978: Feminists Make History With Biggest-Ever March for the Equal Rights Amendment

    In the largest march for women’s rights in the nation’s history – nearly three times the size of the largest suffrage parade, and at least twice as big as the landmark August 26, 1970 march in New York – a hundred thousand supporters of equality took to the streets of Washington, D.C., today to call for an extension of the deadline for ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment.

    The spectacle was as colorful as it was powerful, with over 325 delegations, representing a wide coalition of groups, displaying their names on purple, white and gold banners. Those were the colors of the National Woman’s Party, which in February, 1921, just six months after having played a major role in winning the struggle for the vote, began turning its efforts toward the next logical step of achieving “absolute equality.”

    Appropriately, the first banner in today’s march paid tribute to the National Woman’s Party’s founder, and the author of the E.R.A.: “Alice Paul, 1885-1977.” This was followed by an antique trolley car carrying several veterans of the battle for “Votes for Women,” which ended successfully on August 26, 1920, after a 72-year effort. Numerous participants saluted the suffragists by dressing in white, as many had done in parades and pageants, plus other events such as the “Silent Sentinel” picketing of President Wilson from 1917 to 1919.

    The unexpectedly large turnout overwhelmed everyone, from organizers who had to delay the start for 90 minutes, to police who suddenly had to close all of Constitution Avenue instead of just half. It was more than three hours after the start of the march that the last delegation finally made its way from the Mall to the rally on the West Steps of the Capitol. There the crowd heard 35 nationally known speakers tell why the E.R.A. is needed and that the battle can be won.

    “This is just the beginning,” said Eleanor Smeal, president of the National Organization for Women, sponsor of the rally. She then said:

    We are here because our hearts are here, our souls are here and our spirits long for liberty and justice. And we will not – we will not ever – accept a country in which we remain second-class citizens ! The E.R.A. – liberty for women – is not an idea. It is not just a hope. It is a spirit that lives in each one of us, and it can’t go away. We can’t go home to the 19th Century because we are going to march into the 21st ! So we will march, we will demonstrate, we will petition, we will write letters, we will work this summer like we have never worked before, and we will march into history. We will finish and complete the American dream. We will make real the promise of equality for all.

    Other speakers and marchers expressed similar feelings. Esther Rolle, best known for her roles in the hit shows “Maude” and “Good Times,” said: “Congress better wake up. There will be political consequences if E.R.A. doesn’t get the support it should.” Patsy Mink, of Americans for Democratic Action agreed, saying: “If they dare to turn us down, we will turn them out on the next election day.” Rep. Elizabeth Holtzman (D-NY), sponsor of H.J.R. 638, which would extend E.R.A.’s present deadline of March 22, 1979, said: “Time is on our side and we will win !”

    Eleanor Holmes Norton, of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission asked:

    “How will people look at us 50 years from now if Congress doesn’t even give us more time ? We look back on history and we wonder what all the fuss was about over an issue. The point of E.R.A. is to get people to recognize that change is already here. You see a 22-year-old girl with a cop’s hat and you know that 20 years ago, a girl the same age would have been a secretary in the police station.”

    N.O.W.’s first president, Betty Friedan, marched along on this hot and humid day, and said: “It’s an incredible turnout. I don’t see how anybody could say there wasn’t support for E.R.A. with this crowd showing up in this weather.”

    Eleanor Smeal had also noted the huge numbers for this event and the lack of anything comparable by “Stop E.R.A.” forces, when she said, to the delight of the audience: “Phyllis Schlafly – wherever you are – eat your heart out !”

    Former N.O.W. presidents Wilma Scott Heide and Karen DeCrow were there to participate in N.O.W.’s largest event ever, ably coordinated by Jane Wells-Schooley, who had only weeks to turn a N.O.W. Board Resolution into a march and rally of truly historic proportions.

    The campaign for the Equal Rights Amendment was formally kicked off by the National Woman’s Party on July 21, 1923, as part of its commemoration of the 75th anniversary of the Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Conference of July 19-20, 1848. The E.R.A. was introduced into the U.S. Senate on December 10, 1923 and into the House three days later. It was passed by Congress on March 22, 1972, following overwhelming approval by both House (354-24) and Senate (84-8). A seven-year deadline was set at the time, but as was first noted by law students and N.O.W. members Catherine Timlin and Alice Bennett, the deadline is not part of the text of the amendment, so it can be altered or deleted by a simple majority of Congress.

    Thirty-five of the thirty-eight State ratifications needed occurred between March 22, 1972 and January 24, 1977. Had just EIGHT individual State Senators changed their votes, the E.R.A. would have gotten three more State ratifications and become part of the Constitution on March 1, 1977. (In 1975 an E.R.A. ratification resolution was passed by the Florida House and the Nevada House, but it came up three votes short in the Senate in both states. In 1977 the North Carolina House passed a ratification resolution, but it came up 2 votes short in the Senate.)

    The American people are ready for equality, as public support for the E.R.A. stands at 64% according to a recent CBS/New York Times poll, and at 58% according to Gallup. The E.R.A.’s full text is:

    “Section 1: Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.

    “Section 2: The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

    “Section 3: This amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification.”

    The extension resolution is currently being considered by the House Judiciary Committee, and a vote is expected soon. As many as 5,000 of today’s marchers are expected to stay overnight and then participate in Monday’s “Lobby Day” on Capitol Hill to keep up the momentum generated by today’s mass march.


    Watch the video: Penn State Hazing Case: Tim Piazzas Final Hours Shown On Video. TODAY (July 2022).


Comments:

  1. Goltitaxe

    Between us speaking, I would ask for help from the users of this forum.

  2. Shaktigar

    unpowering

  3. Talal

    I feel sorry for you.



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