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The radical journalist, George Seldes, established the In Fact political newsletter in 1940. One of the first articles published in the newsletter concerned the link between cigarette smoking and cancer. Seldes later explained that at the time, "The tobacco stories were suppressed by every major newspaper. For ten years we pounded on tobacco as being one of the only legal poisons you could buy in America."

In Fact often published articles by journalists whose own editors would not use in case they upset their advertisers. At its peak, the newsletter had a circulation of 176,000. This was higher than more established liberal journals such as The Nation and The New Republic. The In Fact newsletter ceased publication in 1950.

Question: Can you trust the press?

George Seldes: The baseball scores are always correct (except for a typographical error now and then). The stock market tables are correct (within the same limitation). But when it comes to news which will affect you, your daily life, your job, your relation to other peoples, your thinking on economic and social problems, and, more important today, your going to war and risking your life for a great ideal, then you cannot trust about 98 percent (or perhaps 99 1/2 percent) of the big newspaper and big magazine press of America.

Question: But why can't you trust the press?

George Seldes: Because it has become big business. The big city press and the big magazines have become commercialized, or big business organizations, run with no other motive than profit for owner or stockholder (although hypocritically still maintaining the old American tradition of guiding and enlightening the people). The big press cannot exist a day without advertising. Advertising means money from big business.


In Fact - History

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Fès, also spelled Fez, Arabic Fās, city, northern Morocco, on the Wadi Fès just above its influx into the Sebou River.

The oldest of Morocco’s four imperial cities, it was founded on the banks of the Wadi Fès by Idrīs I (east bank, about 789) and Idrīs II (west bank, about 809). The two parts were united by the Almoravids in the 11th century to become a major Islamic city. Fès reached its zenith as a centre of learning and commerce under the Marīnids in the mid-14th century and has kept its religious primacy through the ages. The Treaty of Fès (March 30, 1912) established the French protectorate in Morocco.

The city is almost completely surrounded by low hills covered with olive groves and orchards. The ancient battlements of Fès, flanked by stone towers, still partly enclose the old city, which is known as the Fès el-Bali. The old city contains the 9th-century Qarawīyīn Mosque and is the seat both of a famous Islamic university (founded 859) and of the Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdellah University (founded 1974) it is also the sanctuary (zāwiyah) of Idrīs I and houses the tomb of Idrīs II. The old city contains a number of well-preserved funduqs (caravansaries). The Fès el-Jedid (New Fès) section of the city, founded in the 13th century by the Marīnids, contains the Royal Palace and the adjoining Great Mosque, which is noted for its 13th-century polychrome minaret. Just south of the Royal Palace is the Mellah, or Jewish quarter many of the Jewish goldsmiths, silversmiths, and jewelers who once lived there immigrated to Israel in the decades following the founding of the Jewish state (1948). The modern section of the city, the Ville Nouvelle, lies on a plateau to the southwest it was founded by Marshal L.-H.-G. Lyautey of France in 1916. The city’s industrial quarter is in this district, near the railway station.

Fès is a centre for trade and traditional crafts, and until the late 19th century it was the only place in the world where the fez (brimless red felt hat in the shape of a truncated cone) was made. Most of the city’s traditional crafts, such as leatherwork and pottery making, are practiced in the narrow, winding streets of the old city and are sold in that section’s traditional marketplaces, or sūqs. Tourism is a major industry in Fès. The old city was named a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1981. Fès has an international airport. The area in which Fès is situated produces cereals (primarily wheat), beans, olives, and grapes sheep, goats, and cattle are also raised. Pop. (2004) 946,815 (2014) 1,091,512.


Speaking of necessities, residents of ancient Pompeii could go upstairs to pee. Though the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79 destroyed many second stories, pipes left behind reveal traces of fecal matter, and the occasional upstairs toilet still remains in the ruins.

The adult human skeleton has 206 bones. The smallest is the stapes or stirrup, the innermost of three bones in the middle ear the femur (thighbone) is the longest and strongest, and the tibia in the lower leg is the second largest in the human skeleton. What you may not know is that babies are born with about 270 bones. Some fuse together as their bodies grow.


Continued Controversy

The ultimate controversy of AT&T has always been its structural scale within the market. The company has seemingly always progressed well at gaining market share. Fast forward to more recent years, and irony really takes over the story. After struggling for years, a former piece of the monopoly, SBC Communications (you may remember it as Southwestern Bell), acquired AT&T in 2005 for $16 billion. Adopting the more time-honored name, AT&T was once again on the map as one of the top dogs.

Since, the focus of the business has been different. The advent of the internet and cell phones changed the game forever. We’ve watched the new AT&T make multiple acquisitions through the past decade and a half, including Cingular Wireless, BellSouth, Cricket, and eventually DirecTV. The merit of that last acquisition has been in question. Now with business segments in traditional phone, wireless, and television, AT&T is a powerhouse within the modern era of media.


History of Marriage: 13 Surprising Facts

Moonstruck partners pledging eternal love may be the current definition of marriage, but this starry-eyed picture has relatively modern origins.

Though marriage has ancient roots, until recently love had little to do with it.

"What marriage had in common was that it really was not about the relationship between the man and the woman," said Stephanie Coontz, the author of "Marriage, a History: How Love Conquered Marriage," (Penguin Books, 2006). "It was a way of getting in-laws, of making alliances and expanding the family labor force."

But as family plots of land gave way to market economies and Kings ceded power to democracies, the notion of marriage transformed. Now, most Americans see marriage as a bond between equals that's all about love and companionship. [I Don't: 5 Myths About Marriage]

That changing definition has paved the way for same-sex marriage and Wednesday's (June 26) Supreme Court rulings, which struck down the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) and dismissed a case concerning Proposition 8.

From polygamy to same-sex marriage, here are 13 milestones in the history of marriage.

1. Arranged alliances

Marriage is a truly ancient institution that predates recorded history. But early marriage was seen as a strategic alliance between families, with the youngsters often having no say in the matter. In some cultures, parents even married one child to the spirit of a deceased child in order to strengthen familial bonds, Coontz said.

2. Family ties

Keeping alliances within the family was also quite common. In the Bible, the forefathers Isaac and Jacob married cousins and Abraham married his half-sister. Cousin marriages remain common throughout the world, particularly in the Middle East. In fact, Rutgers anthropologist Robin Fox has estimated that the majority of all marriages throughout history were between first and second cousins.

3. Polygamy preferred

Monogamy may seem central to marriage now, but in fact, polygamy was common throughout history. From Jacob, to Kings David and Solomon, Biblical men often had anywhere from two to thousands of wives. (Of course, though polygamy may have been an ideal that high-status men aspired to, for purely mathematical reasons most men likely had at most one wife). In a few cultures, one woman married multiple men, and there have even been some rare instances of group marriages. [Life's Extremes: Monogamy vs. Polygamy]

4. Babies optional

In many early cultures, men could dissolve a marriage or take another wife if a woman was infertile. However, the early Christian church was a trailblazer in arguing that marriage was not contingent on producing offspring.

"The early Christian church held the position that if you can procreate you must not refuse to procreate. But they always took the position that they would annul a marriage if a man could not have sex with his wife, but not if they could not conceive," Coontz told LiveScience.

5. Monogamy established

Monogamy became the guiding principle for Western marriages sometime between the sixth and the ninth centuries, Coontz said.

"There was a protracted battle between the Catholic Church and the old nobility and kings who wanted to say 'I can take a second wife,'" Coontz said.

The Church eventually prevailed, with monogamy becoming central to the notion of marriage by the ninth century.

6. Monogamy lite

Still, monogamous marriage was very different from the modern conception of mutual fidelity. Though marriage was legally or sacramentally recognized between just one man and one woman, until the 19th century, men had wide latitude to engage in extramarital affairs, Coontz said. Any children resulting from those trysts, however, would be illegitimate, with no claim to the man's inheritance.

"Men's promiscuity was quite protected by the dual laws of legal monogamy but tolerance &mdash basically enabling &mdash of informal promiscuity," Coontz said.

Women caught stepping out, by contrast, faced serious risk and censure.

7. State or church?

Marriages in the West were originally contracts between the families of two partners, with the Catholic Church and the state staying out of it. In 1215, the Catholic Church decreed that partners had to publicly post banns, or notices of an impending marriage in a local parish, to cut down on the frequency of invalid marriages (the Church eliminated that requirement in the 1980s). Still, until the 1500s, the Church accepted a couple's word that they had exchanged marriage vows, with no witnesses or corroborating evidence needed.

8. Civil marriage

In the last several hundred years, the state has played a greater role in marriage. For instance, Massachusetts began requiring marriage licenses in 1639, and by the 19th-century marriage licenses were common in the United States.

9. Love matches

By about 250 years ago, the notion of love matches gained traction, Coontz said, meaning marriage was based on love and possibly sexual desire. But mutual attraction in marriage wasn't important until about a century ago. In fact, in Victorian England, many held that women didn't have strong sexual urges at all, Coontz said.

10. Market economics

Around the world, family-arranged alliances have gradually given way to love matches, and a transition from an agricultural to a market economy plays a big role in that transition, Coontz said.

Parents historically controlled access to inheritance of agricultural land. But with the spread of a market economy, "it's less important for people to have permission of their parents to wait to give them an inheritance or to work on their parents' land," Coontz said. "So it's more possible for young people to say, 'heck, I'm going to marry who I want.'"

Modern markets also allow women to play a greater economic role, which lead to their greater independence. And the expansion of democracy, with its emphasis on liberty and individual choice, may also have stacked the deck for love matches.

11. Different spheres

Still, marriage wasn't about equality until about 50 years ago. At that time, women and men had unique rights and responsibilities within marriage. For instance, in the United States, marital rape was legal in many states until the 1970s, and women often could not open credit cards in their own names, Coontz said. Women were entitled to support from their husbands, but didn't have the right to decide on the distribution of community property. And if a wife was injured or killed, a man could sue the responsible party for depriving him of "services around the home," whereas women didn't have the same option, Coontz said.

12. Partnership of equals

By about 50 years ago, the notion that men and women had identical obligations within marriage began to take root. Instead of being about unique, gender-based roles, most partners conceived of their unions in terms of flexible divisions of labor, companionship, and mutual sexual attraction.

13. Gay marriage gains ground

Changes in straight marriage paved the way for gay marriage. Once marriage was not legally based on complementary, gender-based roles, gay marriage seemed like a logical next step.

"One of the reasons for the stunningly rapid increase in acceptance of same sex marriage is because heterosexuals have completely changed their notion of what marriage is between a man and a woman," Coontz said. "We now believe it is based on love, mutual sexual attraction, equality and a flexible division of labor."


Geography

The Japanese archipelago includes more than 3,000 islands, covering a total area of 377,835 square kilometers (145,883 square miles). The four main islands, from north to south, are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu.

Japan is largely mountainous and forested, with arable land making up only 11.6 percent of the country. The highest point is Mount Fuji, at 3,776 meters (12,385 feet). The lowest point is Hachiro-gata, which sits at four meters below sea level (-12 feet).

Positioned astride the Pacific Ring of Fire, Japan features a number of hydrothermal features such as geysers and hot springs. The country suffers frequent earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions.


Purolator Facts & History

Delivering over one quarter of a billion packages with no sign of slowing down, we want to make sure Purolator continues to exceed the expectations of businesses, consumers, and our employees. That’s why we announced our intention to invest more than $1 billion through a five-year delivering the future growth and innovation strategy. It’s focused on four key areas: transforming our network and fleet accelerating the digital experience for our customers creating the safest and best place to work and driving growth for businesses of all sizes.

The centrepiece of Purolator’s growth and innovation investment is a new $330 million, 430,000-sq-ft national hub in Toronto, Ontario, set to open in 2021. The investment will also go towards job creation, professional development, fleet upgrades (with a focus on electric and hybrid electric vehicles), and retail network expansion to offer consumers more flexibility and choice.

2010-2018

Purolator continues to find new ways to reinforce our commitment to our customers, the community, and the environment.

From 2010 to 2018, we expanded our services to include more delivery services coast to coast. Launched in 2018, the Express 12PM service offers the largest selection of guaranteed express shipping options. We expanded ground services to more regional destinations, opened mobile truck stops in busy Canadian cities, and developed cutting edge ecommerce tools and apps for customers.

We are active participants in the communities where we live and work. Through our award-winning Purolator Tackle Hunger program, we donated the equivalent of over 8 million pounds of food to Canadian food banks in hundreds of communities.

Being responsible for our role in the environment is important to everyone at Purolator. In this decade, we took concrete steps to improve operational efficiencies and reduce our environmental impact. We launched a program to optimize delivery and sorting, and introduced hybrid electric delivery vehicles to our fleet. As the 2010 Olympic Games’s official courier, we also won the prestigious Sustainability Star award for supporting the Olympic Village’s courier requirements with the Quicksider, our battery-operated electric vehicle.

2000-2009

Responding to the changing needs of our customers, in the 2000s Purolator focused on modernization, growth, and customer service.

While we added 11 facilities within Canada, we also looked to solidify our presence in the U.S. We were one of a select few companies in Canada to received Partners in Protection (PIP), Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) and Free and Secure Trade (FAST) approval. This achieved all three levels of voluntary trans-border security programs from agencies on both sides of the Canada-U.S. border. The announcement came at a time of substantial dialogue regarding security.

To continue to improve the customer experience, we introduced new online tools for faster service, an upgraded interactive voice response system for customers calling 1-888-SHIP-123, and a new drop box design. Elevating the brand further, an advertising campaign promoted Purolator as a network unlike any other. While Purolator's original online shipping software had a solid 12-year run, it was officially retired in 2008 and replaced with Purolator E-Ship ® Online.

We also got ISO 9001:2000 registration, allowing us to clearly define our quality focus, and align it with efforts to deliver superior customer care. This important initiative laid the groundwork for proactive and measured continuous improvement.

In 2003, we teamed up with Food Banks Canada to announce a long-term relationship to support Canada's national food sharing system to help take more food, more efficiently, to more local communities. This was the catalyst for our award-winning Purolator Tackle Hunger program. Throughout that decade, we donated over two million pounds of food to Canadian food banks.

1990-1999

Purolator leaned into innovation and expansion in the 1990s.

In 1993, we launched Purolator's first website - www.purolator.com. By 1997, we became the first Canadian courier company to offer pickup requests on the internet. For the first time, customers could track packages, check rates and transit times, and download our automated shipping software. Within one year of launching that that software, we processed over one million shipment requests.

Great customer service never takes a holiday. Reinforcing our commitment to our customers, we began to offer same-day pickup and delivery services, 24 hours a day, seven days a week in 1997. The next year, we introduced 24-hour bilingual customer service to our toll-free number, 1 888 SHIP-123, available from anywhere in North America.


7. Wedding shoes

Some odd traditions surrounding weddings and shoes include:

  • In Hungary the groom drinks a toast to the bride out of her wedding shoe.
  • In China, one of the bride&rsquos shoes is tossed from the roof. The shoe must be red and this gives the couple good luck in the marriage.
  • In the Middle Ages, the father and the groom-to-be would have a shoe ceremony. The father would then give the man authority over his daughter. At the wedding, the bride would put the shoe on to show she was now the groom&rsquos possession.

Grow your vocab the fun way!

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Modern-day lynchings

You might think of lynchings as a disgraceful and barbaric practice from the past, but they continue to this day. In 1998, James Byrd was chained to a car by three white supremacists and dragged to his death in the streets of Jasper, Texas. In 2020, Ahmaud Arbery was fatally shot while jogging near Brunswick, Georgia. The three white men charged with killing Arbery claimed he was trespassing.

The videotaped death of George Floyd was a modern-day lynching. Floyd was killed in broad daylight by police officer Derek Chauvin, who held Floyd down with a knee on his neck for more than nine minutes.

Lynchings like these should not be part of American society today just as they should not have been 100 years ago. NAACP will continue to fight back against white supremacy and violence, and demand that people responsible, including law enforcement officers, be held accountable.

What we witnessed with George Floyd was that same public spectacle: someone in broad daylight with onlookers around, being killed at the hands of a law enforcement officer who has just complete disregard for human life and felt he was above the law.

- Derrick Johnson, NAACP President and CEO

Walter White, Investigator

In 1918, Walter White, NAACP Assistant Secretary, initially joined NAACP as an investigator. His fair skin and straight hair made him effective in conducting investigations of lynchings and race riots in the South. He could "pass" and talk to whites but identified as Black. Through 1927, White would investigate 41 lynchings.

Walter White lynching investigations featured in The Crisis:

The Lynching of Mary Turner, May 19, 1918 – Georgia

The lynching of Mary Turner in Brooks-Lowndes County, Georgia, was one of the lynching investigations by Walter White on behalf of NAACP. Abusive plantation owner, Hampton Smith, was shot and killed. A week-long manhunt resulted in the killing of Mary Turner's husband, Hayes Turner. Mary denied that her husband had been involved in Smith's killing, publicly opposed her husband's murder, and threatened to have members of the mob arrested.

On May 19, 1918, a mob of several hundred brought her to Folsom Bridge, tied Mary's ankles, hung her upside down from a tree, doused her in gasoline and motor oil and set her on fire. She was still alive when a member of the mob split her abdomen open with a knife. Her unborn child fell to the ground, was stomped and crushed. Mary's body was riddled with hundreds of bullets.

The September 1918 issue of The Crisis carried an account of the lynching.

The Lynching of Jesse McIlherron, February 1918 – Tennessee

The lynching of Jesse McIlherron was another Walter White investigation for NAACP. Jesse was a Black man who resented the slights and insults of white men. He stayed armed and the sheriff feared him. On February 8, 1918, he got into a quarrel with three young white men who insulted him. Threats were made and McIlherron shot and killed two of the men.

McIlherron fled to the home of a Black clergyman who aided him to escape and was later shot and killed by a mob. McIlherron was captured and lynched. McIlherron was chained to a hickory tree, a fire was built, and the torture began. Bars of iron were heated and the mob amused itself by putting them close to McIlherron, at first without touching him. He grasped at a bar and as it was jerked from his grasp, the inside of his hand came with it. Then, the real torturing began, lasting twenty minutes.

During that time, while his flesh was slowly roasting, Jesse never lost nerve. He cursed those who tortured him and almost to the last breath, derided the attempts of the mob to break his spirit.

An account of the lynching of Jesse was carried in the May 1918 issue of The Crisis.


Watch the video: IN FACT. Melvitto. АЛЕНА ТЕСЕЛКИНА. Dancehall (July 2022).


Comments:

  1. Dirk

    It is a pity that I cannot speak now - there is no free time. I will be back - I will definitely express my opinion on this issue.

  2. Gardar

    The helpful information

  3. Gaven

    And what is the result?



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