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As at other research universities, Ohio State faculty in STEMM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics and medicine) are predominantly male, and promotion and retention of women faculty lag behind rates for men. Women, especially those from other underrepresented groups, face unique challenges. Underlying cultural assumptions, such as attitudes about proficiency in the field, and implicit biases leading to fewer award nominations and promotions for women, can pose barriers for women in STEMM departments and colleges. STEMM women often report feeling like outsiders and receiving little support within their units (Status Report on Women 2012, The Women’s Place).
Since the implementation of Project CEOS (Comprehensive Equity at Ohio State) in 2008, a National Science Foundation ADVANCE grant, Ohio State has made great strides toward improving gender equity for faculty in STEMM. Project CEOS researchers, led by Joan Herbers, worked to increase the representation and persistence of diverse women faculty by addressing cultural barriers to equity for women and members of historically underrepresented groups. This multi-year project focused on the retention and career development of women faculty members in the College of Engineering, the College of Veterinary Medicine and in the Division of Natural and Mathematical Sciences within the College of Arts and Sciences.
Ohio State has an established infrastructure of support offices to promote gender equity, including the President and Provost’s Council on Women (PPCW) and The Women’s Place. In October 2012, the university created Gender Initiatives in STEMM (GI-STEMM). In March of 2016, Gender Initiatives in STEMM was renamed Ohio State ADVANCE which is led by Mary Juhas, associate vice president for Ohio State University and former program director of Project CEOS. The name change is a result of a 2008 Institutional Transformation grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) ADVANCE program.
Using Nurse Practitioner Certification for State Nursing Regulation: A Historical Perspective
This information was written in 1998. We include it here to provide factual background information on this issue.
In the past, there was much confusion over nurse practitioner certification programs and NCSBN's supposed attempts to develop a core nurse practitioner examination. To communicate the most current and accurate information related to nurse practitioner certification programs and their potential for state regulatory use, NCSBN provides the following update.
Background of the Issue
The board of nursing in each state, under the authority of the Nursing Practice Act, establishes statutory authority for licensure of registered nurses (RNs), which includes the use of a title, authorization for a scope of practice, standards of practice and disciplinary grounds. When an RN engages in practice that is determined to be beyond the identified scope of nursing practice (as in advanced practice nursing), legal authorization for that practice must exist in state law. Any title, even if issued by a national certification body, only carries legal status if that title is recognized or authorized in statute or regulation.
Some jurisdictions require certification by a national professional body as one prerequisite for state authorization to practice as an advanced practice nurse. This is an appropriate means by which states may fulfill their obligation for public protection if such certification programs regularly demonstrate their sufficiency for regulatory purposes. Regulatory sufficiency is based upon examination design geared toward entry-level competencies, exclusively job-related knowledge and skills, pass/fail at the point of the minimum-essential level for safety and effectiveness, and use of generally accepted testing practices.
Nurse Practitioner Certification
Concerns about regulatory sufficiency were raised when representatives of some nurse practitioner certification programs clearly stated that their examinations were not designed for entry-level use. Additionally, uneven enforcement of admission requirements accentuated boards' concerns about their reliance on national specialty certification programs for regulatory purposes.
As a result, boards of nursing, via their 1995 Delegate Assembly, directed the NCSBN to collaborate with nurse practitioner specialty certification organizations to make significant progress toward legally defensible, psychometrically sound nurse practitioner examinations that are sufficient for regulatory purposes.
During 1995-96, the National Council and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), National Certification Board for Pediatric Nurse Practitioners and Nurses (NCBPNP/N), National Certification Corporation (NCC) for women's health specialties and American Academy of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) met and corresponded to attempt to work out a mutually acceptable process by which evidence of regulatory sufficiency could be reviewed and conclusions drawn to allow boards of nursing to determine the appropriateness of reliance on certification programs in granting state authorization to nurse practitioners. An offer by the National Council to provide review services at its own expense foundered over issues of confidentiality and reporting to boards of nursing.
At that juncture, NCSBN's Board of Directors initiated a nurse practitioner job analysis study, as it had been directed by the boards of nursing to do if sufficient progress was not made. Shortly thereafter, the parties came back to the table to discuss the possibility of a third-party review process, which ultimately proved mutually acceptable. NCSBN stated its acceptance of third-party review performed by mutually agreed upon consultants and review by the National Commission of Certifying Agencies (NCCA), an arm of the National Organization for Competency Assurance. The NCCA criteria were to be supplemented by criteria specified by the National Council that pertained to regulatory use for granting state authorization (i.e., entry level, job related and minimum level required for safety and effectiveness).
In August 1996, NCSBN received a report from the ANCC, performed by independent consultants knowledgeable in state regulation of professionals, which evidenced meeting most criteria and made minor recommendations for improvements. The ANCC outlined plans to accomplish those improvements. As of February 1997, the ANCC also underwent NCCA review and is awaiting the NCCA report.
The AANP and NCC underwent NCCA review in July 1996 and provided additional requested information in August/September 1996, which was reviewed by the NCCA in late October 1996. These organizations received their certification from the NCCA and are awaiting the NCCA's final report, which addresses the examination-related requirements outlined by NCSBN(criteria included in the NCCA process as well as the supplemental criteria).
The NCBPNP/N underwent NCCA review in July 1996 and received full NCCA recognition. The final report was delivered to the NCBPNP/N and forwarded to NCSBN in November 1996.
Following receipt of each of the reports, the NCSBN will respond to the individual organizations regarding the fulfillment of the agreed-upon steps for demonstrating regulatory sufficiency and disseminate a report of these results to boards of nursing. Additionally, NCSBN is initiating discussions, which will include its Member Boards and the certifying bodies, regarding a mechanism(s) that may be used to assure the certification examinations' ongoing regulatory sufficiency to boards of nursing.
Because progress is being made toward legally defensible, psychometrically sound nurse practitioner examinations that are sufficient for regulatory purposes, as directed by the NCSBN's Delegate Assembly, NCSBN suspended performance of an incumbent nurse practitioner job analysis. The job analysis would only be resumed if progress were again impeded.
There are no current NCSBN activities directed toward the development of additional examinations, core or specialty, for any category of advanced practice registered nurse.
The nursing press, including the numerous publications of organizations concerned with advanced practice nursing, has given frequent coverage to advanced practice regulatory issues since first raised by the NCSBN in 1992. Much of the coverage has been incomplete, out-of-date or patently misleading. And, several points in recent articles require comment for the correction of the record.
NCSBN's Positions & Actions
Much confusion surrounds the positions of the NCSBN (set by its Delegate Assembly) regarding advanced practice. Following are the actions of the NCSBN's Delegate Assembly, which is comprised of representatives of all boards of nursing in the United States and five U.S. territories.
The position paper on the Licensure of Advanced Nursing Practice and the additions of Model Language for Advanced Nursing Practice in the Model Nursing Practice Act (available for purchase through the publication order form on this web site) was referred back to the Subcommittee to Study the Regulation of Advanced Nursing Practice for the purpose of reviewing the comments received from the delegates and interested nursing organizations and for developing the model rules the position paper and model were to be brought to the 1993 Delegate Assembly for consideration.
The Delegate Assembly adopted the position paper on the regulation of advanced nursing practice with the proviso that the Board of Directors continue collaboration with the American Nurses Association, American Association of Nurse Anesthetists, American College of Nurse-Midwives and other nursing organizations, including nurse certifying bodies.
The Delegate Assembly adopted the Model Legislation Language and Model Administrative Rules for Advanced Nursing Practice, to be incorporated into the newly adopted Model Nursing Practice Act and Model Nursing Administrative Rules.
NCSBN performed a study to identify core competencies of nurse practitioners.
NCSBN performed a study exploring the regulatory, fiscal and political implications of developing a core competency examination for nurse practitioners.
NCSBN established a task force to develop a database of advanced practice credentialing requirements (licensure, recognition, certification, authority to practice, etc.) for each Member Board with enough specificity for other Member Boards to make credentialing decisions as well as studied whether or not additional mechanisms could be developed to facilitate interstate mobility of advanced practice nurses.
NCSBN collaborated with nurse practitioner specialty certification organizations to make significant progress toward legally defensible, psychometrically sound nurse practitioner examinations which are sufficient for regulatory purposes benchmarks for progress were established and evaluated by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors reported to the 1996 Delegate Assembly with specific recommendations regarding future actions. When the Board of Directors determined that significant progress was not being made, the Board was authorized to conduct a job analysis of entry-level nurse practitioners.
To assure that Member Boards have psychometrically sound and legally defensible nurse practitioner examinations available for their regulatory purposes, and pending the receipt of final examination evaluations and mutually acceptable plans for correction, the Board of Directors continued to negotiate with nurse practitioner certifying organizations.
If, at any time, the Board of Directors determines that significant progress is not being made, the Board is authorized to proceed with phase two of the nurse practitioner job analysis. Furthermore, the Board of Directors is charged to determine a mechanism for assuring continued adherence with established standards for psychometrically sound, legally defensible nurse practitioner examinations used for regulatory purposes.
In the past, it was suggested that the NCSBN's primary motive for involvement in nurse practitioner examination matters is financial. In fact, in 1994-95, during the analysis of the fiscal, regulatory and political implications of developing a core licensure examination for nurse practitioners, NCSBN determined that a significant financial outlay would be required for the start-up work on even a single (core) examination, and that the best return which could be expected for ongoing expenses was at break-even.
Thus, future decisions all revolved around the necessity of efforts to meet nursing boards' regulatory requirements, not the possibility of creating a new market for the NCSBN.
Multiple articles confound the NCSBN's position on advanced practice licensure with the relationship to nurse practitioner certifying bodies. As indicated previously, in 1993 NCSBN adopted a position advocating the licensure of advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) on the basis that the level of care they provide and the autonomy of their practice are of such significance to consumers that, if provided incompetently or unethically, the public could be exposed to severe harm. Unlike physicians, scopes of practice for nurses are not generally expansive enough to include all aspects of advanced practice nursing thus, additional legal authority must be secured through nursing statute or regulation.
The NCSBN position also advocates that regulatory jurisdiction for APRNs be solely under boards of nursing, a master's degree be required as minimum educational preparation and prescriptive authority be granted as appropriate to the practice area. Appropriate considerations for transition periods, such as grandfathering, are described in several places in the model administrative rule language, which was adopted concurrently with the position statement.
The current status of this issue is that, as of Jan. 1, 1997, all states regulate advanced practice nurses in some manner. Eighteen states currently license nurse practitioners. Thirty-two additional jurisdictions grant authority to practice through certificates, recognition, registration or similar means. In granting authority to practice beyond the RN scope of practice, boards rely upon conventional authority mechanisms, including graduation from approved educational programs and, in many cases, certification examinations. Thirty-eight jurisdictions currently rely upon national certification programs to measure competency.
The status of the other issue, regulatory use of certification examinations, is distinct. The 1995-to-present interactions with the nurse practitioner certifying bodies are focused on the needs of states for examinations that provide a sufficient basis for them to discharge their regulatory responsibilities. These activities are not a proposal for second licensure, but a means of implementing, fairly and responsibly, existing legal requirements in states.
If the examinations provided by certifying bodies are -- or can be made to be within a reasonable time -- sufficient for regulatory purposes, no further provision is needed nor will it be sought via the NCSBN. If not, all avenues will have to be explored to meet the regulatory mandate for public protection.
Current Nurse Practitioners
Claims that practicing nurse practitioners stand to lose their eligibility to practice and receive reimbursement are without foundation under the NCSBN's position on APRN licensure and its negotiations with nurse practitioner certifying bodies. Mechanisms such as transition periods and grandfathering are available to states to assure that current nurse practitioners are fairly treated and express the value of current competent practitioners to boards of nursing and the public they serve.
The endpoint of the NCSBN's activities related to nurse practitioner certification activities is anticipated to be when closure is reached on a mechanism to assure ongoing demonstration of regulatory sufficiency.
Other APRN Categories
There has been activity over the past several years in monitoring the status of clinical nurse specialists. Based on a 1996 report, monitoring of the role is the only current NCSBN activity with respect to clinical nurse specialists.
Activity related to certified registered nurse anesthetists includes availability of material in the NCSBN's clearinghouse of information provided by the certifying bodies and a relationship in which the certification corporation reviews information about disciplinary actions taken against licenses by boards of nursing.
Clearinghouse information is also available regarding certification for nurse midwives, with the additional interest in assessing regulatory implications of the recently announced policy to admit non-nurses to the certification program.
Reports from the NCCA relative to the criteria for the nurse practitioner examinations provided by the NCC, AANP and ANCC are expected to be completed and forwarded to NCSBN in the near future. A report to boards of nursing and a press release will subsequently be distributed to summarize the status of the issue of use of certification examinations for regulatory purposes.
By Summer 1997, it is anticipated that a mechanism for assuring ongoing regulatory sufficiency will be identified. A progress report on all of these issues will be presented to the official representatives of the boards of nursing at the 1997 NCSBN Annual Meeting.
At present, NCSBN is not pursuing a job analysis or any form of test development related to any category of APRNs.
Public History Advanced Certificate
Public historians bring history to non-academic audiences. The College of Staten Island’s Advanced Certificate in Public History Program provides students with the practical, theoretical, intellectual, and professional knowledge required of public historians at work today. This post-baccalaureate program is ideally suited to persons seeking to pursue or advance careers at museums, archives, archeological sites, media organizations, national parks, or other public history sites. Students complete five courses (or 20 credits in total), including an extended internship at a museum, archive, or other history institution in New York City. Seminars and internships in Public History, Museum Studies, Archival Studies, Oral History, and the History of New York are among the courses available.
The Public History Program at the College of Staten Island invites applications from all persons with bachelor’s degrees and an enthusiasm for conveying history to public audiences. Museum docents and educators seeking further professional training in public history are encouraged to apply. Persons who are working toward or who already possess MA or Ph.D. degrees from other institutions are also welcomed.
For information on admission requirements, see our graduate catalog
To complete the online application,click here.
Office of Recruitment and Admissions
The Public History Advanced Certificate and the History MA
The Public History Advanced Certificate can be completed at the College of Staten Island as a stand-alone post-baccalaureate qualification or alongside the College&rsquos History MA Program.
Students who complete the Public History Advanced Certificate Program by itself may subsequently choose to apply to the History MA Program at the College of Staten Island. If admitted, they will be able to complete their MA Degree by combing their existing Public History Certificate courses with four additional graduate-level history courses.
Students enrolled in the History MA Program at the College of Staten Island automatically have the option of completing both the Public History Certificate and the History MA Degree together by fulfilling a combined total of nine courses (or 36 credits), including a public history internship.
To find out more about the History MA Program or to return to the History MA page, click here.
The Advance Group is an innovative organization that includes commercial moving, office furniture installation, distribution, storage, document management, and employee relocation services. It is the largest organization of its type in the tri-state area.
The Advance Group is the product of a family business that had its roots in the post-World War II period. Molloy Bros. Moving & Storage started in 1946 and expanded rapidly. In 1957, Molloy Bros. became an agent for Allied Van Lines and grew into one of New York’s largest residential movers. The company then expanded to New Jersey and to three Florida locations. In 1973, Molloy Bros. changed its affiliation to North American Van Lines.
In 1976 the Molloy brothers sold the business to non-family members. At this point in time, the business focus moved from Molloy Bros. to Jim Molloy exclusively when he joined North American Van Lines as a sales executive in the New York City corporate sales office.
In 1979, Jim started Advance Relocation and Storage, a commercial moving operation, to capitalize on the growing need to relocate commercial businesses. Business grew rapidly and prospered and, in 1987, the company expanded its offices and facilities to New Jersey and Connecticut.
In 1989, Advance Relocation and Storage took over the sales office operations in New York City for North American Van Lines to service existing national accounts as part of Advance Relocation and Storage.
The opportunity to reacquire the family’s Molloy Bros. residential moving operation presented itself in 1990. With Molloy Bros. back in the fold, Advance Relocation and Storage had expanded its capabilities to include employee relocation. It had also gained a marquee name as well as significant assets, including facilities in New York, West Palm Beach, Pompano Beach, and Miami.
By 1995 the company had outgrown its roots as simply a moving company. The company name was then changed to Advance Commercial Movers to reflect the expanded emphasis on the commercial market. Advance Commercial Movers left the North American Van Lines organization in 1994. It remained an independent until 1998 when it joined Mayflower Transit, which is a part of the world’s largest moving organization, the Uni-Group. Later, in the mid-nineties, a document management company called Record Guard was started.
Understanding the need to expand service offerings and to increase the company’s foothold in the New York City commercial market, Jim formed a joint venture partnership in 2003 with Shamus Barnes that brought FITCO, a leading Queens-based furniture installation and warehousing company, into the fold.
Tremendous Growth & Innovation
The prescience of these moves was demonstrated in 2005 when the company experienced record-breaking growth of more than 30 percent.
Over the past several years there has been an overall strengthening of the company’s team, operations and systems. At a time when others in the industry were downsizing, The Advance Group expanded, investing in seasoned professionals who were ready to make changes. Some of these valued professionals include Mark Shapiro, Director of Business Development Frank McNally, Assistant Vice President Operations Jeff Silverstein, Vice President of Sales Pedro Lozada, Project Manager and Linda D’Onofrio, Commercial Project Coordinator.
We also invested a new facility in New Jersey to better service the New York metropolitan area. Our Harrison facility has twice the capacity of our prior location and is more convenient to our customers and labor force.
A Global Future
The Advance Group is now a member of the Office Moving Alliance, LLC, otherwise known as OMA. This is a major step forward for us, expanding our ability to relocate single employees, or entire corporations virtually anywhere in the world. OMA members actively serve over 200 key cities in 10 countries around the globe. So no matter where your next move takes you, The Advance Group can help you organize it and make it go smoothly through its own resources and those of its partners.
What does this mean to our clients, partners and employees? It means that continued success lies ahead. We are committed to evolving and maintaining our status as the industry leader. This commitment leads to better service, satisfied clients, strong vendor relationships and employees with bright futures.
Today, more than 40 years since his journey began Jim Molloy’s vision has been defined with the integration of five core business units and a dedicated, professional management team into the entity known as The Advance Group.
The Hooker Advance
Hooker Advance began February 19, 1904. It was a predominately Republican newspaper, edited and published by Jesse S. Moffitt. It was a four-page paper, measuring 17 by 24 inches that utilized patent sheets. J. Henry Shields served as editor when Moffitt was absent. The building and press for the Hooker Advance were both destroyed by a fire in June of 1908 that destroyed over half of the business district of the town of Hooker.
A yearly subscription was one dollar and its circulation was around between 700 and 1000 in 1907. Its banner read “The Best Paper, Circulated Among the Best People in the Best Town on Earth.” In October of 1908, it began displaying the seal of Oklahoma on its banner. It is still currently in circulation.
An excerpt from June 5, 1908, reads, “…The town was filled with the usual Trade day crowd. The fire evidently started under the rear end of the Hughes building on the third lot west of the Hixson corner, which was occupied by Mrs. Atterbury’s restaurant. It is said that some burning rags were carried from the restaurant to the back yard where they were supposed to have been carefully extinguished, but a spark must have escaped and been carried by the wind under the building where it ignited some rubbish and was soon fanned into a flame beyond all control. In a few minutes, the four other adjoining buildings were a mass of flames.” (Volume 5, number 17)
About Aviation Partners
Aviation Partners is the world leader in the design, production and marketing of advanced-technology winglet systems. The Seattle-based private corporation was founded in 1991 by Joe Clark and Dennis Washington. In creating Aviation Partners, Clark gathered together a highly and uniquely experienced team of aerospace professionals consisting primarily of retired Boeing and Lockheed engineers and aerodynamicists. In the early days of Aviation Partners this core group was known internally as “the dream team.”
History of Innovation
AB was founded in 1993 by Alfred E. Mann with the mission to develop implantable patient care solutions that improve quality of life.
AB evolved from two highly successful companies that developed and marketed innovative medical devices one created new generation pacemakers, and the other developed microinfusion systems (miniature drug delivery pumps used in the treatment of diabetes). The technology behind AB’s first cochlear implant system came from the pioneering research at the University of California, San Francisco.
Since its inception, AB has consistently made industry-leading advancements in technology innovations that have helped make a difference in the lives of thousands of families worldwide.
Today, AB offers the most sophisticated cochlear implant system on the market with five times more sound resolution than its competitors, designed to allow recipients to go beyond deciphering speech to hearing music.
Now working with Phonak under the Sonova Group, AB has access to industry-leading engineering and technologies for products currently under development. These revolutionary products are designed to deliver unparalleled hearing performance, comfort, and reliability for recipients.
Advanced Circuits PCB Manufacturer since 1989
For Advanced Circuits, "business as usual" simply means delivering a quality printed circuit board on time&hellipEVERY TIME&hellipwith the industry's best customer service and convenience. From their inception in April 1989, they continue to out pace the industry in sales growth and innovation and have consistently focused on anticipating customers' needs, developing partnerships with them, and responding with services that make their lives easier.
Quickturn, Small Quantity Printed Circuit Boards
At the beginning Advanced Circuits transformed the industry by developing a new way to build low quantity prototypes with a quick turnaround times. Later, Advanced Circuits introduced a "first" in the industry, with instant online web quoting, ordering, and status. No longer did customers have to rely on fax and long quote turnarounds, and the term "Quick turn" took on new meaning, as customers were able to quote, track, and receive boards faster and more reliably than ever before.
In 1998 after moving to a new building in the Majestic Commerce Center near Denver International Airport, the first fully automated plating line in Colorado was installed after which sales growth began to really take off. In 1999 Advanced Circuits was named to Deloitte & Touche's prestigious Technology Fast 50 Program and gained the distinction of being one of the "50 fastest growing technology companies in Colorado." As a side note, the company has been named to this list every year, and in fall 2007 they received their 9th consecutive award, only one of two companies to ever receive this distinction. Also of distinction, Advanced Circuits has been a consistent Environmental Gold Award winner, a distinction shared by few Colorado companies.
In the summer 2001, Advanced Circuits introduced the famous "$33 Each" Special that made quickturn, small quantity PCBs affordable to not only all professionals, but also hobbyists and students alike. Production orders followed every quickturn/small quantity initiative, and Advanced circuits experienced record sales growth of 77% in the industry banner year of 2000. Even in the recession years that followed Advanced Circuits continued to innovate and grow.
The bells and whistles to your service really set you apart from competitors
What a great service you have. The bells and whistles to your service really set you apart from competitors. Interactive quoting lets me dial in quantities and lead times to get the best bargains and it's great to see your FreeDFM&trade pick up the double vias that Orcad leaves behind. Your site is also a great place to keep up with the latest trends in technology and RoHS requirements. It's about time to see a board house enter the 21st Century."
- P.R., NBS Card Technology
This week in UWO history
May 6, 1987 — Arthur Ziegler, Wisconsin’s head cartographer for the previous 25 years, spoke on campus. Ziegler said of Wisconsin’s four boundary disputes, two eventually ended up in the U.S. Supreme Court. Inaccurate surveying and faulty equipment caused many of the disputes. “Cartography has improved more in the last five years than it did in the 30 before that,” Ziegler said. “I’m almost glad I’m near retirement because with all the advances [in modern mapmaking due to satellite systems and computers], I’m running too hard to keep up.”
May 7, 1914 — The May Festival began. Over the course of two days, students, staff and invited guests were treated to hours of musical programs featuring the St. Paul Symphony Orchestra and a chorus of 250 ONS students as well as the children of the practice school.
May 9, 1955 — The Women’s Association of Oshkosh State College entertained their mothers at the annual Mother’s Day Tea. A small program was held with singing and guest speakers. Roy Dunlap, a columnist of the St. Paul Pioneer Press was the guest speaker who shared his recent experiences of traveling to Europe.
May 10, 1963 — Articles of incorporation were filed at the Winnebago Country Court House for the Oshkosh State College Foundation, Inc. Its purpose was to provide improvements for the college beyond those supported by state monies, essential due to ever increasing enrollments. The Foundation continues today as the UW Oshkosh Foundation.
May 11, 1957 — The Golden Tridents, a female water ballet team of 15 Oshkosh State College students, wrapped up their four-day show at the school’s new pool. “Standing Room Only” consisted of 14 swimming numbers that were set to the music of top Broadway plays. The swimming group was organized in the beginning of the school year.
May 12, 1962 — Sophomore Bonney Schuette saved the life of a drowning 10-year-old boy from the Fox River even though she couldn’t swim. Schuette, 19, and several classmates were sunning themselves on the river bank near Marina Products, Inc., when the boy fell into the river. Schuette jumped into the river and managed to hold the boy’s head above water until her fiancé, several hundred feet away, reached the scene.
May 13, 1947 — Cleveland P. Grant, an avid bird watcher whose interests have been parlayed into an extensive lecture series and motion picture deals, spoke at the Little Theater. The former Field Museum (Chicago) employee lectured to the eighth grade of the Training School, using natural color film to explore American bird behavior. The presentation discussed birds’ northward migration, courtship, care of eggs and young and southward migration. At the time, Cleveland and his wife Ruth had spent over 15 years studying, searching and photographing birds. Grant also had delivered over 3,500 lectures in his career. Many of his films were eventually released to theaters throughout the nation.
Antediluvian maps: Evidence of advanced civilizations before written history?
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How is it possible that there are prehistoric, ancient maps, depicting regions of our planet like Antarctica without ice, dating back thousands of years? Did these maps belong to Antediluvian civilizations which inhabited our planet before written history?
1534: The Oronce Finé World Map. An early cordiform projection which features the Antarctic continent splayed along its southern edge some 300 years before it is believed to have been discovered. An inscription spans the width of the continent, “Southern land newly discovered, but not yet fully explored.”
The Antediluvian period or the Pre-Flood period is referred to the time ‘before the great deluge’. In the bible, this period is set between the fall of man and the Noachian deluge, the story of the Flood as described by genesis. However, stories of a great deluge are not only present in the Bible, as a matter of a fact, similar stories can be found in different religions and stretching back thousands of years.
In fact, the earliest accounts of a great flood originate in Ancient Sumer and date back to around 200 BC. The ancient texts found through ancient Sumerian Clay Tablets not only describe an antediluvian history but also speak of the creation of man and how the ‘gods’ intervened in a remarkable way:
Twelve hundred years had not yet passed when the land extended and the peoples multiplied. The land was bellowing like a bull,
The God got disturbed with their uproar. Enlil heard their noise.
And addressed the great Gods, ‘The noise of mankind has become too intense for me,
With their uproar, I am deprived of sleep. Cut off supplies for the peoples, Let there be a scarcity of planet-life to satisfy their hunger.
Adad [another Custodian] should withhold his rain, and below, the flood [the regular flooding of the land which made it fertile] should not come up from the abyss
Let the wind blow and parch the ground, Let the clouds thicken but not release a downpour, Let the fields diminish their yields,
There must be no rejoicing among them.
1531: The Oronteus Finaeus map shows Antarctica before it was “discovered” and how it looked ice-free. The map shows rivers, valleys, and mountains…
It is noteworthy to mention that according to Sumerian Tablets, just before the great flood struck the Earth, ‘Gods’ left the planet to remain safe in the ‘heavens’, only to return after the flood.
These stories or commonly referred to as ‘myths’ by mainstream scholars indicate a time when different civilizations inhabited our planet, cultures and people that lived on Earth before history was written, a lost period of pre-historic events whose remains we are slowly picking up today.
But not only are the stories of a Great Flood the only evidence that supports the theory advanced civilizations were her much before us, there are numerous other discoveries that support the idea of Antediluvian civilizations.
The fact that there are numerous artifacts discovered across the planet indicates that history, as we have been taught, is completely wrong.