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Columbus in Spain - History

Columbus in Spain - History


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Columbus in spain

From the moment he arrived in Spain, Columbus worked continuously to secure support for his quest to sail westward to the Indies. Columbus petitioned to meet with King Fernando and Queen Isabel. Before he could meet with the monarchs, he needed to present his ideas to the Royal Council. The Royal Council rejected Columbus' proposal. Columbus then requested a personnel interview with the King and Queen. His request was granted.

Columbus presented his plans to the King and Queen on January 20, 1485. They were intrigued. They established a Royal Commission to examine Columbus' proposal. The commission rejected Columbus' arguments and calculations. Despite this recommendation, the monarchs were not willing dismiss Columbus completely. The told Columbus that they would possibly support his voyage later when their war with the Muslims was over. In the meantime they gave Columbus a small grant to keep working on his venture. Columbus continued to work to convince the monarchs to support his expedition. By 1491 Columbus had become exasperated by the unwillingness and was ready to leave Spain. He received one more audience with the King and Queen, which were inconclusive, so he made, plans to leave. In the final moment King Fernando, who had left the negotiations mostly to Isabella, called Columbus back and agreed to finance his expedition. What made King Fernando change his mind will remain a mystery.

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Compare and Constrast Howard Zinn and Christopher Columbus

“Ever since 1992 and the 500th anniversary of 1492, the Columbus legacy has taken a hit so much that right now a generational movement to rename Columbus Day to Indigenous Peoples Day, led by Native American activists is bearing results in some cities and states. He is important because The New World comes into play and prominence, and the whole World changes overnight. Around the time of discovery, I recall a writer or a philosopher said, “”If America Didn’t Exist We’d Have to Make It Up””. Meaning the new world would fulfill all fantasies, promises and hopes. The contact between the old world and the new world, we Natives refer to Contact and European-Americans call it Discovery, now we call it recovery. Natives have suffered historical trauma, just as other survivors thru history (jewish concentration camp survivors) that may be passed on to descendants. But the discovery aspect could save his legacy if people can come together and celebrate discovery, invention and innovation. So after contact and discovery, we have great philosophical debates, Montaigne, Voltaire, Shakespeare and John Locke.

The gold & silver of the Americas changed the Old World, as did the food of the New World, Natives will tell you that our lands, our cultures and our concepts contributed to American Democracy, it did not all come from England, Rome & Greece. Christopher Columbus was a man of many things, though the one of his accomplishments that is most known today was the discovery of “The New World”. Now, it is known as America. Christopher Columbus, it is taught, has shaped the culture and society to be what it is today. Now, the country takes a day off of school (Monday, October, to commemorate this great feat in history. Columbus’s discovery of The New World is what really started opening up trade routes. If Columbus had not had discovered The New World, it could have completely changed history. I believe it is right that we credit him for the discovery even though he wasn’t the “First” to discover America because it is what his discovery started, and what it led to in history and all the factors that played after it,” America celebrates Columbus Day because Christopher Columbus took a voyage to search for trade routes to Asia and India, but landed in the Americas. However, he thought he was in India because he sailed across seas onto unmapped land. He wasn’t aware of this land because the people who visited it before him didn’t document, spread word, or start an economic system because of it.

Christopher Columbus was born in 1451 in the Republic of Genoa, or what is now Italy. In his 20s he moved to Lisbon, Portugal, and later resettled in Spain, which remained his home base for the duration of his life. Christopher Columbus was an italian explorer and navigator. In 1492, he sailed across the Ocean blue from Spain in the Santa Maria, with the Pinta and the Niña ships alongside, hoping to discover a new route. He was trained in the Portuguese maritime service for many years, Columbus is thought to have been illiterate, and having no formal education. Columbus acquired knowledge of the Spanish language reading and writing from associates in Spain. As a result of his association with Portuguese mariners, Columbus was taught how to handle a caravel in various types of winds and seas, and the types of stores supplies to take on extended voyages. His education included how such supplies might best be stowed. Additionally, his education must have included relating to native peoples using exchange of gifts. “When he was still a teenager, he got a job on a merchant ship. He remained at sea until 1470, when French privateers attacked his ship as it sailed north along the Portuguese coast.The boat sank, but the young Columbus floated to shore on a scrap of wood and made his way to Lisbon, where he studied mathematics, astronomy, cartography and navigation. He also began to hatch the plan that would change the world forever.”(Wiley News)

In 1479 Columbus married Dona Felipe and established land in Porto Santo were his son Diego was born in 1480. When his wife died somewhere in between 1481 to 1485, Columbus returned to Lisbon. As early as 1484 Columbus got a plan to sail west from the Canary Islands to the Indies now East Indies) and the kingdom island of Cipangu now known as modern day Japan. Christopher Columbus had three ships on his first voyage, the Niña, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. Columbus sailed from Palos de la Frontera on 3 August, 1492. His flagship, the Santa Maria had 52 men aboard while his other two ships, the Nina and Pinta were each crewed by 18 men. After 36 days of sailing westward across the Atlantic, Columbus and several crewmen set foot on an island in the present day Bahamas, claiming it for Spain. There he encountered a timid but friendly group of natives who were open to trade with the sailors, exchanging glass beads, cotton balls, parrots and spears. The Europeans also noticed bits of gold the natives wore for adornment.

“”During the decade before 1492, as Columbus nursed a growing urge to sail west to the Indies—as the lands of China, Japan and India were then known in Europe—he was studying the old writers to find out what the world and its people were like. He read the Ymago Mundi of Pierre d’Ailly, a French cardinal who wrote in the early 15th century, the travels of Marco Polo and of Sir John Mandeville, Pliny’s Natural History and the Historia Rerum Ubique Gestarum of Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini,”” (Eyewitness History). Columbus was not trying to take credit from discovering the new world but explore other places that other native americans haven’t seen. Christopher columbus seized his life to take upon a journey that opened up many doors for many other explorers. Although columbus was technically not the first to discover The New World, his work is credited for the culture that came from his voyage. In 15th-century Spain, ships were traditionally named after saints. Salty sailors, however, bestowed less-than-sacred nicknames upon their vessels. Mariners dubbed one of the three ships on Columbus’s 1492 voyage the Pinta, Spanish for “the painted one” or “prostitute.” The Santa Clara, meanwhile, was nicknamed the Nina in honor of its owner, Juan Nino. Although the Santa Maria is called by its official name, its nickname was La Gallega, after the province of Galicia in which it was built.”


Was Columbus Jewish?

On August 3, 1492, due to the Edict of Expulsion, all Jews were required to leave Spain. Boarding their vessels before midnight, and sailing one-half hour before sunrise, Columbus and his crew set out on his now-famous voyage. 1

His historic voyage was financed by wealthy and influential Jews-many themselves converts-rather than a magnanimous King and Queen of Spain.

The source of Columbus' motivation was his Biblical view of scientific data as well as spiritual faith in the Scriptures.

Although their immigration into Europe technically started with the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 a.d. and the Diaspora it initiated, Jews had already begun to settle on the Iberian (Spanish-Portuguese) Peninsula centuries before Christ.

From about the first century a.d. Spanish Jews, called Sephardim (from the Hebrew for the Iberian peninsula "Sepharad"), were pilgrimaging to Jerusalem. Paul even spoke of the need for missionary work among the Jews of Spain. 2

After about 200 a.d., Spain became and remained a second Jewish homeland for well over a millennia. So deeply woven into the fabric of Spain are the Jews that neither history can be fully studied without considering the influence of the other.

The Jews in Spain became the target of pogroms and religious per-secution. Many were forced to renounce Judaism and embrace Catholicism. These were known as Conversos, or converts.

Others, Marranos, feigned conversion, practicing Catholicism outwardly while remaining Jews inwardly. Marranos has two meanings in Spanish: "the damned" and "swine."

In response to a petition to Rome to introduce the Inquisition and find a final solution to their Jewish Problem, in 1487 Spain obtained a Papal Bull. The introduction of the Inquisition was motivated by the greed of King Ferdinand attempting to seize all the power and wealth in Spain. It was an instrument of avarice and political absolutism. 3 Four years later tens of thousands of Jews, Marranos, and even Conversos were suffering under the Spanish Inquisition.

In the 8th century, Muslim armies from North Africa invaded the Iberian Peninsula, fragmenting it into separate kingdoms known as the Spains. About 980 of these independent Spains began their Reconquista, War of Reconquest, against their Islamic invaders. The primary source of financing was trade with the Far East.

By the 1400s, the passages to the East were denied to the Christian West by the Muslims who controlled the main overland routes to the Orient. Bandits, desert heat and sand storms, as well as other hazards eventually made Europe's alternate overland routes too dangerous and expensive. A new route, by sea, was the challenge.

By the late 13th century, the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon had reconquered most of the Muslim-controlled territory. In 1479 the two kingdoms were united as a result of the marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella of Castile. The last Muslim kingdom, Granada, was reconquered in 1492, which seems to have set the stage for the famous voyage. The Maritime Technology of 15th Century.

Contrary to popular belief, most of the educated of 15th century Europe held to the concept of a spherical earth.

Hebrew astronomers, like Abraham Zacuto, who the explorer Vasco Da Gama had consulted seeking a sea route to India around Africa, furnished the celestial time tables.

Rabbi Levi ben Gershon, whose mathematical system became the basis for modern trigonometry, had invented a quadrant known as Jacob's Staff. This angle- measuring de-vice was used by Columbus, Da Gama, and Ferdinand Ma-gellan, the first to circumnavigate the earth.

Abraham Ibn Esra, Jacob ben Machir, and Jacob Carsoni developed technical apparatus like the Astrolabe, used to determine the latitude and longitude of a position.

Cartography, the art and science of making maps and charts, was also an area of Jewish expertise in Europe. One such specialist was Abraham Cresques, known as "The Master of Maps and Compasses." Another was his son, Jehudah ben Cresques, who administered several schools of cartography, thus preparing for the "age of discovery" on their horizon.

It was a young mariner and cartographer who was to combine these factors into a radical plan to reach the East by sailing west across the Ocean-Sea: Christopher Columbus.

Italy asserts that Cristoforo Colombo was born in Liguria of humble means. They claim his father, Domenico Colombo, was a tower sentinel in Genoa and later a weaver in Savona. 4

Spain insists that Cristobal Colon was the son of Domingo Colon, a wool trader, and Susanna Fontanarossa, both of Pontevedra, Spain.

Other sources present the view that Columbus' family were Spaniards who lived in Italy but later returned to Spain, resuming their original family name of Colon.

Fifteenth century Portugal was Europe's dominant sea power, with Lisbon, its ocean-port capital, the center of navigational science and nautical speculation.

Arriving in Lisbon in 1476, Columbus engaged in cartography as well as working in his brother's book business. It was from the interchanges with scholars that Columbus crystallized his La Empresa de la Indies, his Enterprise of the Indies.

He felt predestined, chosen for a mission. His name, Christ-Topher ("Christ-bearer"), he felt was evidence of his destiny.

Columbus was more driven by prophecy than astronomy. He compiled a collection of Biblical passages in his Libro de las Profecias, Book of Prophecies: Proverbs 8:27, which speaks of the earth's surface as being curved Isaiah 40:22, the spherical earth and the ocean currents in Isaiah 43:16. 5 He would later describe his discovery of the New World as "the fulfillment of what Isaiah prophesied," from Isaiah 24:15, "Isles beyond the sea," and Isaiah 60:9. 6

He also would have at least suspected the existence of the American continent. In his personal library was the 1472 edition of Bibliothecae Historicae, written by Diodorus Siculus, a first century b.c. Greek historian who spoke of "a very great island many day's sailing from Africa."

Many Portuguese cartographers were aware of the "Isle of Seven Cities," Antlia, located in the Western Atlantic. Also, a passage by Roger Bacon, "the sea between the end of Spain on the west and the beginning of India on the east is navigable in a very few days if the wind is fav-orable," was cited by Columbus in a letter to Ferdinand and Isabella in 1498 as one of the suggestions that had inspired his voyage in 1492. 7

In 1483, Columbus' plan was rejected simply because they felt that the distance was too great.

In 1487, Columbus left Portugal for Spain, and in 1489 he gained an audience with Queen Isabella, and built his arguments on evangelistic aspects. She was so impressed theologically she submitted it to a special commission at the University of Salamanca, but in 1490 it was again rejected as the distance being too great.

However, the Queen assured Columbus that he could petition her again after the Reconquista was completed. When Granada, the last Muslim stronghold, fell in January of 1492, Columbus was summoned and the issue was reopened.

When asked what he required to complete his plan, Columbus, to ensure the well-being of his now impoverished family, included 10% of all treasure and trade resulting. The extent of his requirements, along with the cost of the war, made it impossible for Spain to underwrite the expedition.

Soon after Columbus was dismissed, three men, Juan Cabrero, Luis de Santangel, and Gabriel Sanchez approached the monarchs. Aside from their being Conversos, these were not ordinary Spaniards. Santangel was a member of one of the wealthiest and most influential families in Spain, as well as the King's personal advisor. Juan Cabrero was Ferdinand's intimate friend who had fought by the King against the Muslims. Gabriel Sanchez was the Chief Treasurer of Spain. They offered to finance Columbus' project and it was accepted.

Some scholars believe that Santangel and his associates were willing to finance Columbus in the hope of finding a new Promised Land to which they might emigrate and escape the pressure of the church. 8

Tomas de Torquemada was appointed inquisitor-general in the autumn of 1483, providing the Inquisition with a new impetus. In less than 12 years, the Inquisition condemned no less than 13,000 Marranos, men and women who had continued to practice Judaism in secret. 9

They were tortured in La Casas Santa, the Holy Houses, and burned alive at the stake while their property was divided between the Pope and the King.

When Granada fell on January 2, 1492, the drive toward complete religious unity was reinforced. On March 31, 1492, the Edit of Expulsion was signed. The deadline for Jews to leave Spain was August 3, 1492, which was, ironically, the Ninth of Av (Tisha B'av) on the Jewish calendar, a day of fasting com-memorating the destruction of both Temples in Jerusalem. 10

Columbus and his crew boarded their vessels before midnight, and on the August 3rd sailed before sunrise.

Columbus employed peculiar dates and phrases unique to the Hebrew people. Instead of referring to the "destruction" or "fall of Jerusalem," he used the phrase "the destruction of the second house." He also employed the Hebrew reckoning of 68 a.d. instead of 70 a.d. A marginal note dated 1481 is immediately given its Hebrew equivalent of 5241, etc.

He boasted that he was related to King David, some of his letters were described as written in an "unknown script" (Hebrew?), and he is said to have used a unique triangular signature similar to inscriptions found on gravestones of ancient Jewish cemeteries in Spain and Southern France.

Was Columbus a Gentile or a Jew? Was he a Marrano or a Converso? Was he Cristoforo Colombo the Italian Catholic or Crist: bal Col: n the Spanish Jew?

In the final analysis, Columbus' ethnic background is not the important issue, but rather-as is ultimately true for each of us also-his spiritual condition.

The Word of God instructs us to "seek ye first the kingdom of God and His righteousness and all things will be added unto us." 11

In this regard Columbus wrote: "No one should fear to undertake any task in the name of our Saviour, if it is just and if the intention is purely for His service."

Just as a man's life does not consist in the abundance of the things he possesses, so Columbus' greatness does not come from his discovery of America, but because of his relationship with God through the Lord Jesus Christ. How are you doing in this regard?

Sources:

  1. For a remarkable account from the translation of Columbus' logs, and other uplifting background on the founding of our nation, be sure to read The Light and the Glory , by Peter Marshall and David Manuel, Fleming H. Revell Co., Old Tappan, NJ, 1977.
  2. We are also deeply indebted to Tom Fontanes and his sources: M. Kayserling, Christopher Columbus and the Participation of the Jews in the Spanish and Portuguese Discoveries Salvador de Madariaga, Christopher Columbus Being the Life of the Very Magnificent Lord - don Cristobal Colon Gianni Granzotto, Christopher Columbus Simon Wiesenthal, Sails of Hope: The Secret Mission of Christopher Columbus Dr. Cecil Roth, Who Was Columbus? as published in Countdown Magazine, 9/90.
  1. Encyclopaedia Britannica , Vol. 16, p. 670f.
  2. Romans 15:24, 28.
  3. See our Audio Book The Kingdom of Blood .
  4. Columbus was no Genoese patriot: He fought on the Portuguese side in the battle of Cape St. Vincent, August 13, 1476 (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 16, p. 668).
  5. This passage, along with Psalm 77:19, also encouraged Matthew Fontaine Maury (1806-1873) to pursue mapping "the pathways in the sea" and thus become the Father of Oceanography.
  6. Encyclopaedia Britannica , Vol. 16, p. 688.
  7. Roger Bacon, Opus maius , iv, 4 copied in the Imago mundi (1480) by Cardinal Pierre d'Ailly, quoted in Will Durant's The Story of Civilization, Vol. 4, p. 1010.
  8. A regathering prophesied in Jeremiah 23:3 29:14 and 32:37.
  9. Encyclopaedia Judaica , Vol. 15, p. 242.
  10. For a summary of Tisha B'av, see our Audio Book The Feasts of Israel .
  11. Matthew 6:33.

This article was originally published in the
August 1996 Personal Update News Journal.

Disclaimer

PLEASE NOTE: Unless otherwise expressly stated, pricing and offers mentioned in these articles are only valid for up to 30 days from initial publication date and may be subject to change.

Bible study resources from Dr. Chuck Missler, on DVD, CD, audio and video download.


3. Christopher Columbus's voyage to America started from Spain, not Italy.

An illustration of Christopher Columbus at the court of Queen Isabella I and King Ferdinand II. gameover2012/ iStock via Getty Images Plus

To make the question of his ethnicity even more confusing, Christopher Columbus didn’t take his famous voyage under the flags of Italy or Portugal. In the late 15th century, Columbus hatched a plan to chart a passage to the East Indies by sailing West instead of East. If his trip was successful, the profits he’d gain through an alternative spice trading route could make him rich—but he still needed funds to get a ship out of the dock. Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon ultimately agreed to sponsor his journey, and in August 1492, he led the Pinta, the Niña, and the Santa Maria out of the port of Palos in Spain and into the New World.


Could DNA finally tell us where Cristoforo Colombo was from?

DNA could finally reveal the origins of Christopher Columbus (Photo: Tiziano Casalta/Dreamstime)

To us Italians and Italian-Americans – and to most historians – there isn’t really any doubt about it: Christopher Columbus was from Genoa. However, not everyone is as certain as we are, so much so the University of Granada, in Spain, decided to put the matter finally to rest using DNA.

With the collaboration of other international laboratories, including one in Florence, one in Texas and one in Mexico, Columbus’ bones will be tested in the hope to obtain, through genetic mapping, a clear picture of his origins. Yes, because while it is very much historically accepted he was born in Genoa, Italy, there are several theories that would place his birth in other parts of Europe, including Corsica, Spain and Portugal.

Spanish daily El Pais disclosed details about the scientific investigation, whose results should be published in October this year, just in time – we guess – for Columbus Day celebrations. The idea is to extract DNA from his bones and compare it with that of known relatives and direct descendants of his.

Christopher Columbus died in Valladolid, Spain, on the 20 th of May 1506. Since then, doubts about his origins have always thrived. In 2003, pathologist and professor of forensic medicine José Antonio Lorente, along with anthropologist Juan Carlos Alvarez Merino and historian Marcial Castro, exhumed the remains of the explorer and of his son Hernando from their tombs in the Seville cathedral. The bones were then compared with those of Columbus’brother, Diego Colón, in a study that confirmed the three were indeed related.

However, things are not that clear cut. The Dominican Republic has long argued that Christopher Columbus is not buried in Spain, but in Santo Domingo’s cathedral, where in 1877 an urn with his name was discovered. The dispute has ancient origins: it was known that Columbus wanted to be buried on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, a territory today shared between the Dominican Republic and Haiti, and that’s why in 1523, seventeen years after his death, his body was moved from Spain to the South American location, along with that of his son Hernando. When, in 1793, the island became French, the remains were moved to Havana, until 1898, when Cuba obtained its independence. Then, they were transferred across the ocean back to Spain and laid to rest in Seville cathedral, in an imposing tomb created by Arturo Mélida.

Christopher Columbus: historically, he is Italian, but many believe he had different ancestry (Photo: Heritage Pictures/Dreamstime)

The current research project at the University of Granada has been trying, with the help of the Spanish government, to obtain permission from the Dominican Republic to analyze the bones kept in Santo Domingo and ascertain their origin through DNA analysis.

In the meanwhile, the “Seville remains”—part of which have been kept in a safe at the University of Granada — are going to be studied once more to understand the heritage of the admiral. The analysis will take place in Spain, in the US and in a number of European laboratories, including some in Italy to avoid suspicion in case results showed Columbus wasn’t, in fact, Italian at all.

The whole research process, along with its results, will be televised in October with a documentary by produced by RTVE and Story Producciones.

While the figure of Columbus remains mysterious to the eyes of the public, historians have never hidden they are fairly sure he was born in Genoa in 1451, the son of Giovanni Colón, or Colombo, and Giovanna Fontanarrosa, both weavers. Their view is based, as you’d expect from every good historian, on valuable and reliable sources, including the will of Columbus’ own son Hernando. But there are doubts: there is no sign of any document attesting he could write in Italian, as he always communicated in written form using either Spanish dialects or Portuguese. Some theories purport he was a former Spanish Jew who converted to Catholicism for inheritance reasons, while others want him born in a number of different countries, from Spain to Portugal, all the way to Croatia and even Poland.

The team from the University of Granada says this is “The most ambitious scientific investigation into the origins of Christopher Columbus. It will bring together the various theories developed throughout the decades, comparing and contrasting them with one another.”

A mystery that has been lasting for over half a millennium and that could soon find a solution. While it seems unlikely there’ll be big surprises, the thought Christopher could turn out not being Italian is, let’s be honest, quite unsettling: it wouldn’t only change the way we look at history, but the very symbolism we’ve been portraying the connection between Italy and the US with. Columbus may have become controversial in recent years, yet his figure is still deeply rooted into the heart and mind of Italian-Americans. Let’s hope DNA won’t change any of that.

Per noi italiani e italoamericani – e per la maggior parte degli storici – non c’è davvero alcun dubbio: Cristoforo Colombo era di Genova. Tuttavia, non tutti sono così sicuri come noi, tanto che l’Università di Granada, in Spagna, ha deciso di mettere finalmente la parola fine alla questione utilizzando il DNA.
Con la collaborazione di altri laboratori internazionali, tra cui uno a Firenze, uno in Texas e uno in Messico, le ossa di Colombo saranno analizzate nella speranza di ottenere, attraverso la mappatura genetica, un quadro chiaro delle sue origini. Sì, perché se è storicamente molto accettato che sia nato a Genova, in Italia, ci sono diverse teorie che collocherebbero la sua nascita in altre parti d’Europa, tra cui Corsica, Spagna e Portogallo.
Il quotidiano spagnolo El Pais ha rivelato i dettagli dell’indagine scientifica, i cui risultati dovrebbero essere pubblicati a ottobre di quest’anno, giusto in tempo – crediamo – per le celebrazioni del Columbus Day. L’idea è quella di estrarre il DNA dalle sue ossa e confrontarlo con quello dei parenti conosciuti e dei suoi discendenti diretti.
Cristoforo Colombo morì a Valladolid, Spagna, il 20 maggio 1506. Da allora, i dubbi sulle sue origini hanno sempre prosperato. Nel 2003, il patologo e professore di medicina legale José Antonio Lorente, insieme all’antropologo Juan Carlos Alvarez Merino e allo storico Marcial Castro, ha riesumato i resti dell’esploratore e di suo figlio Hernando dalle loro tombe nella cattedrale di Siviglia. Le ossa sono state poi confrontate con quelle del fratello di Colombo, Diego Colón, in uno studio che confermò che i tre erano effettivamente imparentati.
Tuttavia, le cose non sono così chiare. La Repubblica Domenicana sostiene da tempo che Cristoforo Colombo non è sepolto in Spagna, ma nella cattedrale di Santo Domingo, dove nel 1877 fu scoperta un’urna con il suo nome. La disputa ha origini antiche: si sapeva che Colombo voleva essere sepolto nell’isola caraibica di Hispaniola, un territorio oggi condiviso tra la Repubblica Dominicana e Haiti, ed è per questo che nel 1523, diciassette anni dopo la sua morte, il suo corpo fu trasferito dalla Spagna alla località sudamericana, insieme a quello di suo figlio Hernando. Quando, nel 1793, l’isola divenne francese, i resti furono trasferiti all’Avana, fino al 1898, quando Cuba ottenne l’indipendenza. Poi, furono trasferiti attraverso l’oceano di nuovo in Spagna e deposti nella cattedrale di Siviglia, in una tomba imponente creata da Arturo Mélida.
L’attuale progetto di ricerca dell’Università di Granada sta cercando, con l’aiuto del governo spagnolo, di ottenere dalla Repubblica Dominicana il permesso di analizzare le ossa conservate a Santo Domingo e accertare la loro origine attraverso l’analisi del DNA.
Nel frattempo, i “resti di Siviglia” – parte dei quali sono conservati in una cassaforte dell’Università di Granada – saranno studiati ancora una volta per capire il patrimonio genetico dell’ammiraglio. Le analisi si svolgeranno in Spagna, negli Stati Uniti e in diversi laboratori europei, compresi alcuni in Italia per evitare sospetti nel caso in cui i risultati dimostrassero che Colombo non era affatto italiano.
L’intero processo di ricerca, insieme ai risultati, sarà notificato in ottobre con un documentario prodotto da RTVE e Story Producciones.
Se la figura di Colombo resta misteriosa agli occhi del pubblico, gli storici non hanno mai nascosto di essere abbastanza sicuri che sia nato a Genova nel 1451, figlio di Giovanni Colón, o Colombo, e Giovanna Fontanarrosa, entrambi tessitori. La loro opinione si basa, come ci si aspetta da ogni buon storico, su fonti preziose e affidabili, compreso il testamento del figlio di Colombo, Hernando. Ma ci sono dubbi: non c’è traccia di alcun documento che attesti che lui sapesse scrivere in italiano, dato che ha sempre comunicato in forma scritta usando o i dialetti spagnoli o il portoghese. Alcune teorie sostengono che fosse un ex ebreo spagnolo convertitosi al Cattolicesimo per motivi di eredità, mentre altre lo vogliono nato in diversi Paesi, dalla Spagna al Portogallo, fino alla Croazia e persino alla Polonia.
Il team dell’Università di Granada dice che questa è “La più ambiziosa indagine scientifica sulle origini di Cristoforo Colombo”. Riunirà le varie teorie sviluppate nel corso dei decenni, confrontandole e comparandole tra loro.
Un mistero che dura da oltre mezzo millennio e che presto potrebbe trovare una soluzione. Anche se sembra improbabile che ci saranno grosse sorprese, il pensiero che Cristoforo Colombo possa risultare non italiano è – siamo onesti – abbastanza inquietante: non solo cambierebbe il modo in cui guardiamo alla storia, ma il simbolismo stesso con cui abbiamo costruito il legame tra Italia e Stati Uniti. Colombo può essere diventato controverso negli ultimi anni, ma la sua figura è ancora profondamente radicata nel cuore e nella mente degli italoamericani. Speriamo che il DNA non cambi nulla di tutto ciò.


History of the Columbus Monument

Barcelona is known for its number of tourist attractions, where artists like Gaudí and Miró have left their footprints, for example Casa Batlló and La Dona i Ocell respectively. The city also remembers Christopher Columbus, a definitive discoverer of the Americas in 1492 who returned with riches through conquest. The monument is found at the end of Las Ramblas, Barcelona's most famous avenue. You can go up to the top of the monument in a lift which allows you to take photos of beautiful views over the city.

Why is there a monument to Columbus in Barcelona?

Columbus was born in the mid-15th century and many presume him to be from Genoa, Italy. However, some historians even go as far as to offer proof that he was in fact born in Catalonia. That's perhaps one of the reasons a statue dedicated to the man is placed here in Barcelona.

Apartamentos en el barrio Gótico

Si vienes a visitar la capital catalana, ​​te recomendamos que te alojes en un apartamento en el barrio Gótico. De esta manera, conocerás uno de los barrios históricos de Barcelona y estarás cerca de todo. Además, puedes ahorrar dinero ya que los hoteles son más caros y le ofrecen menos espacio y comodidad.

Win the Barcelona Weekend Experience

During the 15th century, Europe conducted trade with Asia and with India in particular. Troubling times in the middle east made the usual eastern routes dangerous. Columbus had the idea to travel to the Indies by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean instead. When Columbus reached land, he first thought that he was indeed in India, which is why he called the native population "Indios" or Indians.

Despite his success from an commercial and explorational standpoint, many historians today argue columbus was also responsible for a lot of suffering for the Native Americans through slavery and brutal pillaging of valuables from the day he arrived. Reducing populations like the Taino from 250,000 to a couple of hundred.

Excursiones por Barcelona

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The monument was created in time for the 1888 for the Universal Exhibition, most likely to highlight an achievement of Spain in funding his expeditions - a different time - and perhaps it would not have been built today. Though perhaps it would, as however you see it, Columbus changed the face of history and the world as we knew it.

A statue in his image

As you walk down las Ramblas towards the sea, you will end up at the feet of a 60 metre tall statue called the Columbus monument. It is as it says - a monument built in the image of Columbus during his first trip to America.

At the top of the monument is a large statue of Columbus. People say that he is pointing to America, but that of course is not true. He is actually pointing south-east. If you extend his arm with a straight line you will end up in the city of Constantine in Algeria. The true point however - yes, pun intended - is that he is signaling in the direction of the sea.

The idea to build the Columbus monument came from Antoni Fages i Ferrer in 1856. He proposed also that it should be constructed by Catalans only. It took him 16 years to convince the city's mayor and finally in 1872 he won the mayor's support. In 1881 a resolution was passed to build the monument. In a contest Spanish artists could submit their designs, but it was the Catalan artist Gaietà Buigas i Monravà who won. In 1882 the construction began and the monument was completed in 1888, just in time for the Universal Exposition of Barcelona.

Many people still don't know that it is possible to take a small elevator to an observation platform at the top. From there you have a fantastic view over the harbor, the Gothic area and Montjuïc.


Exploring the Early Americas Columbus and the Taíno

When Christopher Columbus arrived on the Bahamian Island of Guanahani (San Salvador) in 1492, he encountered the Taíno people, whom he described in letters as "naked as the day they were born." The Taíno had complex hierarchical religious, political, and social systems. Skilled farmers and navigators, they wrote music and poetry and created powerfully expressive objects. At the time of Columbus’s exploration, the Taíno were the most numerous indigenous people of the Caribbean and inhabited what are now Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. By 1550, the Taíno were close to extinction, many having succumbed to diseases brought by the Spaniards. Taíno influences survived, however, and today appear in the beliefs, religions, language, and music of Caribbean cultures.

Columbus’s Account of 1492 Voyage

After his first transatlantic voyage, Christopher Columbus sent an account of his encounters in the Americas to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. Several copies of his manuscript were made for court officials, and a transcription was published in April 1493. This Latin translation was published the same year. In reporting on his trip to his sovereigns, Columbus wrote:

There I found very many islands, filled with innumerable people, and I have taken possession of them all for their Highnesses, done by proclamation and with the royal standard unfurled, and no opposition was offered to me.

Christopher Columbus (1451–1506). Epistola Christofori Colom (Letters of Christopher Columbus). Rome: Stephan Plannck, after April 29,1493. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (048.00.00, 048.00.01, 048.00.02, 048.00.03)

Columbus’s Voyage and the New World

This edition of the Columbus letter, printed in Basel in 1494, is illustrated. The five woodcuts, which supposedly illustrate Columbus’s voyage and the New World, are in fact mostly imaginary, and were probably adapted drawings of Mediterranean places. This widely published report made Columbus famous throughout Europe. It earned him the title of Admiral, secured him continued royal patronage, and enabled him to make three more trips to the Caribbean, which he firmly believed to the end was a part of Asia. Seventeen editions of the letter were published between 1493 and 1497. Only eight copies of all the editions are extant.

Christopher Columbus. De Insulis nuper in Mari Indico repertis in Carolus Verardus: Historia Baetica. Basel: I.B. [Johann Bergman de Olpe], 1494. Jay I. Kislak Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (048.01.00, 048.01.01, 048.01.02, 048.01.03)

Columbus’s Book of Privileges

On January 5, 1502, prior to his fourth and final voyage to America, Columbus gathered several judges and notaries at his home in Seville to authenticate copies of original documents in which Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand had granted titles, revenues, powers, and privileges to him and his descendants. These thirty-six documents are popularly called Columbus’s "Book of Privileges." Four copies of his "Book" existed in 1502, including one now in Paris from which the elaborate facsimile shown here was made. This publication was one of a number of major documentary projects commemorating the 400th anniversary of the first Columbus voyage in 1892.

Benjamin Stevens, first comp. and ed. Christopher Columbus, His Own Book of Privileges, 1502. London: Chiswick Press, 1893. Jay I. Kislak Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (050.00.00, 050.00.01, 050.00.02, 050.00.03)

Columbus Biography Written by His Son

Fernando Colón was born in Córdoba, Spain, in 1488 and spent his early years there with his mother. As a youth, he traveled to the New World with his father on Columbus’s fourth voyage. As an adult, Fernando became a scholar and built a large personal library using the income from his father’s legacy. Fernando wrote this biography in defense of his father in about 1538.

Fernando Colón (1488–1539). Historie del sig. don Fernando Colombo, nelle quali s'hà particolare, & vera relatione della vita, & de' fatti dell'ammiraglio don Christoforo Colombo suo padre (History by Don Fernando Columbus . . . Don Christopher Columbus, his father). Milan: Girolamo Bordoni, [1614]. Jay I. Kislak Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (051.00.00, 051.00.02, 051.00.03)

Columbus’s Legacy

The grants of privileges and property bestowed on Christopher Columbus by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella became the subject of ongoing litigation between his descendants and the Spanish crown that lasted for centuries. The dispute was finally settled in 1796 in favor of Columbus’s descendants. This collection of printed documents, which includes extracts of Columbus’s will, relates to a dispute over the line of inheritance of one of the explorer's estates in the Americas.

Christoper Columbus. Por parte del conde de Gelues, de doña Francisca Colon, de don Christoual Colon, y de don Baltasar Colon, se suplica a V.m. que cerca de la executoria que la parte de la marquesa de Guadaleste pide, de la que llama sente[n]cia, dada en su fauor por el consejo Real de las Indias. [Spain: s.n., ca. 1586]. Jay I. Kislak Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (052.00.00, 052.00.01, 052.00.02, 052.00.03)

Ceremonial Wooden Stool

Preserved Pre-Columbian duhos (ceremonial wooden stools) from the Caribbean region are exceedingly rare because they are usually found only in dry highland caves. There are two basic types: low horizontal forms with concave seats, such as this one, and stools with long curved backrests. Scholars differ as to the function of the stools. Some believe they represented seats of authority. Others think they served as altars for votive offerings. Still others argue that the Taíno peoples used them as ceremonial trays for making cohoba, a hallucinogenic snuff prepared for shamanistic rituals.

Ceremonial wooden stool ("Duho"). Haiti.Taíno, AD 1000–1500. Carved lignum vitae. Jay I. Kislak Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (054.00.00). ©Justin Kerr, Kerr Associates

Taíno Amulet

The Taíno, a subgroup of the Arawakan Indians from northeastern South America, inhabited the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico). The Taíno created a complicated religious system that included a hierarchy of deities, which included Yucahu, the supreme Creator and the lord of cassava and the sea and Atabey, the goddess of fresh water and human fertility, as well as Yucahu's mother. The Taíno believed that zemis, gods of both sexes, represented by both human and animal forms, provided protection.

Shell Amulet. Haiti or Dominican Republic. Taíno, AD 700–1500. Carved shell. Jay I. Kislak Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (055.00.01)

A crouching figure amulet. Puerto Rico (?). Taíno, AD 1000–1500. Marble. Jay I. Kislak Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (055.00.02)

In the form of a crouching figure with head turned to the side and grasping a stylized figure amulet. Puerto Rico (?). Taíno, AD 1000–1500. Stone. Jay I. Kislak Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (055.00.03)

Two anthropomorphic amulet figures (zemis) in a ritual squatting position possibly the wind god and the a smaller frog avatar. Haiti. Taíno, AD 700–1500. Carved shell. Jay I. Kislak Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (055.00.04)

Conch shell ornament representing a humanoid face. Puerto Rico. Taíno, AD 1000–1500. Carved shell. Jay I. Kislak Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (055.00.05)

Spatula Used for Purging

This long, gracefully curved spatula was used for purging before taking the sacred trance-inducing cohoba, a powerful snuff of nicotine-rich tobacco. The earlobes and eye sockets once held inlays, perhaps of gold leaf or shell.

Effigy bone vomitive spatula. Greater Antilles. Taíno, AD 700–1500. Carved manatee rib. Jay I. Kislak Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (056.00.00). Photo ©Justin Kerr, Kerr Associates

Heart-Shaped Vessel

This intact pottery container is a heart-shaped bottle covered with complex iconography, including female and male attributes. The two lobes represent female breasts and the neck, a phallus. Scholars believe these vessels were water containers used in rituals and ceremonies.

Heart shaped vessel. Dominican Republic. Taíno, AD1000–1500. Ceramic. Jay I. Kislak Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (057.00.00)

Early Description of the New World

Antonio Nebrija, best known for attempting to standardize the Castilan dialect of Spanish as a written language, had many geographical interests. Advisor to Columbus's son Ferdinand Colón, Antonio Nebrija attempted to update the geography of Ptolemy, Strabo, Pliny, and other classical sources "to the reality of our times" and to include information from the discoveries of contemporary European explorers. This book contains one of the earliest descriptions of the New World.

Antonio Nebrija. Introductorium in Cosmographiae libros [Introduction to cosmography]. Salamanca: Printer of Nebrija, ca. 1498. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (53.00.00, 53.00.01, 53.00.02, 53.00.03)

Chronicling the New World

Gonzolo Oviedo sailed in 1514 on the first of his many journeys to America, where he compiled detailed descriptions and woodcut illustrations of products and goods found in the New World. The Spaniard introduced Europe to an enormous variety of previously unheard of "exotica," including the pineapple, the canoe, smoking tobacco, the manatee, and hammocks. Along with Perro Mártir de Angleria and Bartolomé de las Casas, Oviedo was one of the first European chroniclers of New World goods.

Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés (1478–1557). La historia general delas Indias (The general history of the Indies). Seville: Cromberger, 1535. Jay I. Kislak Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (067.00.00, 067.00.01, 067.00.02, 067.00.03)

Girolamo Benzoni

In 1541, Girolamo Benzoni left his native Milan for a fifteen-year trip through South and Central America. He published this account of his travels in 1565. Shocked by experiences of Spanish cruelty toward the Indians, Benzoni denounced the mistreatment. He also criticized importation of African slaves. Although Benzoni has been criticized for exaggeration, his work provides a compact history of the Americas from the arrival of Columbus to the conquest of Peru, from firsthand perspective not colored by Spanish bias. His crude woodcut illustrations give a glimpse of indigenous life before it was altered by European civilization.

Girolamo Benzoni (b. 1519). La historia del mondo nuovo di M. Girolamo Benzoni Milanese [The history of the New World of Mr. Girolamo Benzoni of Milan]. [Venice: F. Rampazetto, 1565.] Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (068.00.00, 068.00.01, 068.00.02, 068.00.03)


In 1500 Columbus was arrested whilst on his third journey to the Americas and brought back to Spain in chains. He had been accused of tyranny during his governorship. Although later released he was never to be governor again. This led to a prolonged period of litigation between the crown and the Columbus family, the family alleging that the crown had reneged on its contractual obligations to Columbus and his heirs. These disputes dragged on until 1790.

Until his death from heart failure, in Valladolid, on the 20th May 1506 Columbus believed he had reached the Indies. It was only in his travel journals of 1502 – 1504 that the scholar Amerigo Vespucci, after whom the lands were called, speculated that the newly discovered lands were a separate continent.


Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus was born in 1451 in beautiful Genoa, Italy. He was raised in the shadows of medieval gates behind him and the open sea in front of him — the perfect backdrop for a boy looking for adventure. Christopher’s father was a respectable middle-class man who made a career of weaving wool. But Columbus had bigger plans than spending his life working with sheep fur, because he had heard the call of the ocean, the lure of the sea. Christopher Columbus set about learning his trade as a teenager, traveling the trade routes across Europe and becoming an expert in navigation. He may have also helped with a bit of “privateering” in the war against the Moors.

Although Christopher Columbus reached his goal of becoming a sea captain, he was not content to simply follow the traditional trade routes and make a nice living. No, he had big plans, and he was willing to risk everything to make them a reality. During this period, land trade between India, China, and Europe dwindled, because the Muslims had effectively created a blockade of the trade routes, including the famous Silk Road. Many Europeans were wondering, “How do we solve this trade problem?”

Along comes a mathematician named Paolo Toscanelli, toiling away quietly at a cathedral in Florence, Italy, who proposes a new theory of reaching the East by sailing west. Then along comes Christopher Columbus, who believes he’s called by God to find a new trade route, and help fulfill the Great Commission. However, before Christopher Columbus could set sail, he needed official sponsorship from a throne. So around the year 1485, Columbus came up with a bold proposal.

Christopher Columbus – A Monumental Voyage

Christopher Columbus spent 20 years traveling through Europe trying to meet with any royalty that would listen to his pitch. He presented his concept to the king of Portugal, possibly as early as 1471, then years later, to England and France. Every time he was rejected. Columbus, often traveling with his son Diego, was rejected on multiple occasions in Spain in the 1490s. His idea was too extreme, too risky, and the timing was just wrong. Columbus was out of options. What he needed was a miracle. A monastery seemed like a good place to find one. When Christopher Columbus knocked on the doors of La Rabida near Palos, Spain, he was at the lowest point of his entire life. He was penniless, hungry, and couldn’t even afford food to eat with his young son, Diego in tow. The two had been all over Europe, speaking before kings, looking for money to fund his voyage, to no avail.

It was two monks from La Rabida that took him in, fed him, and took care of him. But little did Columbus know that these two monks weren’t your normal monks. They had friends in high places. One of the monks, Father Juan Perez, became a friend and supporter of Columbus. Columbus explained that his last resort was going to be one more meeting with the King of France. But Father Perez decided it was time to use his connections. Conveniently, one of Father Perez’s duties was to hear the confessions of the Queen of Spain. Christopher Columbus was allowed into the royal court of Spain where he made his big pitch to the monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella.

But this time, things were different. After 700 years of Islamic domination in Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella had successfully defeated the Muslims, called the Spanish Moors, in a recent battle. They had driven the Moors out of the key port city of Granada in the south. Spain was now unified and peace was now the norm. The monarchs were in a mood to expand.

Christopher Columbus got virtually everything he had hoped and prayed for. He had found royal patrons, which took care of the financing he needed for ships, supplies, and crews. He had even asked for “a piece of the action.” If he discovered gold or other riches, he would get a percentage of everything, along with getting the naming rights and becoming the ruler of any new lands he discovered.

On August 3rd, 1492, Christopher Columbus and some 90 other mariners boarded their ships in the Spanish town of Palos de la Frontera and set sail in the three famous boats, the “Nina,” the “Pinta,” and the “Santa Maria.” It was here that Columbus gathered most of his crew, including the Pinzon brothers, local men famous for their navigational skills who would captain the “Nina” and “Pinta.” Of course, Christopher Columbus captained the ship named after Saint Mary, the mother of Jesus, who was central figure at the monastery of Juan Perez, where Columbus ultimately found hope.


Columbus in Spain - History

Spanish History- The Discovery of America

One of the most significant dates during the history of Spain: the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus in 1492.

The fact that Christopher Columbus (who was not originally Spanish) appealed to a foreign court to offer his services proved that the discovery of America was not incidental.

In 1479, under the Treaty of Alcacoba, Alfonso V of Portugal renounced his claims to Castilla and recognized the rights of Castilla over the Canary Islands. This meant Spain now controlled the Canary Islands.

The Canary Islands were an excellent bridgehead for alternate routes. This is what Christopher Columbus offered and he offered it to a State that needed them, prepared for this type of venture. Unified Spain possessed in 1492 a powerful military, a good economy, naval and exploration experience in addition to notable scientists, mathematicians, geographers, astronomers and shipbuilders. Its only rival was its neighbour, Portugal, who managed to put a stop in Spanish expansion to Africa. Therefore Columbus' proposal was well-received.

Columbus' offer was rapidly accepted in spite of his acknowledged errors. But during his journey to Asia he unexpectedly came across the American continent.

The Spanish were especially well prepared by history to conquer, occupy, populate and exploit new lands and assimilate new people. America thus became the new frontier-land for those people used to its ways and with the military, diplomats and administrative arms at their disposal to face the challenge. By the middle of the 16th century, they had settled in the two most important viceroyalties, Mexico on the Atlantic, and Peru on the Pacific.


Watch the video: Χριστόφορος Κολόμβος θαλασσοπόρος χαρτογράφος (July 2022).


Comments:

  1. Sheffield

    I believe that you are making a mistake.

  2. Shaun

    I don’t know about my parents, but I’ll probably take a look. ... ...

  3. Shakacage

    There is something in this. Thanks for the explanation, I also think that the simpler the better ...

  4. Addergoole

    What impudence!



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