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Culgoa AF - History

Culgoa AF - History


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Culgoa

A merchant name retained.

(AF: dp. 6,000; 1. 346'4"; b. i3'; dr. 21'9"; s. 18 k.;
cpl. 122; a. 2 6-par. r.f.)

Culgoa (AF) was built in 1889 by J. L. Thompson and Sons, Ltd., Sunderland, England; purchased at Cavite, P.I., 4 June 1898; and commissioned 3 December 1898, Lieutenant Commander J. W. Carlin in command.

Assigned to the Asiatic Squadron as a refrigerator supply ship, Culgoa sailed out of Cavite Navy Yard supplying ships and troops at Manila with ice and meat until August 1889. Overhauled at Hong Kong between 20 October and 18 November 1899, Culgoa returned to supply duties, making three voyages to Sydney and Brisbane, Australia, for fresh stores in 1900 and 1901.

On 22 July 1901 she cleared Cavite 22 July 1901 and sailed by way of Ceylon, Suez, Malta, and Gibraltar to New York, arriving 25 September. She was placed out of commission 16 October 1901 at Boston.

Recommissioned 1 October 1902 Culgoa joined the North Atlantic Squadron and provided storeship services to ships and shore stations in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico until again placed out of commission 11 August 1905. Considered for disposition, she was stricken from the Navy List on 7 May 1906, but reinstated 30 June 1906 and recommissioned 12 September 1907 for service with the Atlantic Fleet.

Sailing from New York 21 September 1907 Culgoa was loaned to the Panama Railway Co. for an emergency shipment of beef, returning to New York 16 October 1907. Culgoa cleared 11 December to join the Atlantic Battleship Fleet as mobile stores ship at Santa Lucia for the round-the-world cruise of the "Great White Fleet". At Amoy, China, and in the Formosa Strait between 28 October and 5 November 1908, she assisted in the establishment of wireless communications with the Second Squadron

Returning to Hampton Roads 17 February 1909, Culgoa resumed her cruise along the Atlantic coast and in the Caribbean until 1 December 1910, when she sailed to supply ships serving in European waters, visiting Brest and Cherbourg, France, and Weymouth and Gravesend, England, before returning to New York 20 January 1911.

She put out from New York 11 February 1911 for duty in the Caribbean, where she supplied stores for ships and shore detachments protecting American citizens and interests throughout this troubled area until February 1918.

Serving with the Naval Overseas Transportation Service during the remainder of World War I, Culgoa made seven transatlantic convoy voyages to bases in France and Great Britain between 19 February 1918 and 10 May 1919. On one of these voyages (10 July 1918) she assisted the SS Oosterdijk which sank after a collision with San Jacinto. Culgoa took aboard the passenger survivors and towed the San Jacinto into Halifax.

Culgoa issued stores and provisions to Battle Squadron 2 at Guantanamo Bay from 24 March to 6 April 1920, then after supplying shore installations at Yorktown and Philadelphia, cleared Brooklyn 2 June for fleet maneuvers in the Pacific. Classified AF-3 on 17 July 1920, she joined Battle Squadron 2 at Colon, transited the Panama Canal, and joined in fleet problems on her way to Pearl Harbor, visiting Seattle and San Francisco.

Returning to New York 3 September 1920 for overhaul, she resumed her supply operations on the east coast and in the Caribbean between February and October 1921. Culgoa was decommissioned at New York 31 December 1921 and sold 25 July 1922.


Williamstown is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, south-west of Melbourne's central business district in the local government area of the City of Hobsons Bay.

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BRADLEY FF 1041

This section lists the names and designations that the ship had during its lifetime. The list is in chronological order.

    Garcia Class Destroyer Escort
    Keel Laid January 17 1963 - Launched March 26 1964

Naval Covers

This section lists active links to the pages displaying covers associated with the ship. There should be a separate set of pages for each name of the ship (for example, Bushnell AG-32 / Sumner AGS-5 are different names for the same ship so there should be one set of pages for Bushnell and one set for Sumner). Covers should be presented in chronological order (or as best as can be determined).

Since a ship may have many covers, they may be split among many pages so it doesn't take forever for the pages to load. Each page link should be accompanied by a date range for covers on that page.

Postmarks

This section lists examples of the postmarks used by the ship. There should be a separate set of postmarks for each name and/or commissioning period. Within each set, the postmarks should be listed in order of their classification type. If more than one postmark has the same classification, then they should be further sorted by date of earliest known usage.

A postmark should not be included unless accompanied by a close-up image and/or an image of a cover showing that postmark. Date ranges MUST be based ONLY ON COVERS IN THE MUSEUM and are expected to change as more covers are added.
 
>>> If you have a better example for any of the postmarks, please feel free to replace the existing example.

Postmark Type
---
Killer Bar Text

"ABCD MAIL FOR /
BETTER BUSINESS SERVICE"

As DE-1041
First Day in Commission

As DE-1041
Navy Day, cachet by E-F Cachets

As FF-1041
Welcome to Singapore R/S cachet

Other Information

BRADLEY earned the Navy Battle E Ribbon, the Navy Expeditionary Medal, the National Defense Service Medal, the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, the Vietnam Service Medal (w/ 6 Campaign stars), the Navy Sea Service Deployment Ribbon and the Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal during her Naval career.

NAMESAKE - Willis Winter Bradley, Jr. USN (June 28 1884 - August 27 1954)
Bradley was appointed to the Naval Academy in 1903. He graduated on September 12 1906 and went to sea in USS VIRGINIA BB-13. After two years at sea as a Passed Midshipman, he received his commission as an Ensign on September 13 1908. Successively, Bradley served in USS CULGOA AF-3 from the fall of 1908 to October 1910, helped to fit out and commission USS PERKINS DD-26, and served in her until March of 1911. From then until September of 1912, he saw duty, first in the Transport USS HANCOCK AP-3 and then in USS SOUTH CAROLINA BB-26. Next, he commanded BIDDLE (Torpedo Boat No. 26) and the Reserve Torpedo Group at Annapolis, Md Beginning in September 1913, Bradley studied ordnance and explosives at the Naval Postgraduate School in Annapolis, Md., and then at George Washington University in Washington, D.C. He continued his studies at the Naval Proving Ground in Indian Head, Md., at the Bausch & Lomb, and at the Midvale Steel Co. in Pittsburgh, Pa. In July 1915, Bradley returned to sea in command of STEWART (Destroyer No. 13). That December, he was transferred to command of HULL (Destroyer No. 7) and of the Reserve Torpedo Division, Pacific Fleet. After service in USS SAN DIEGO ACR-6 between September 1916 and February 1917, Bradley became Gunnery Officer in USS PITTSBURGH CA-4. In that capacity, he earned The Medal of Honor on July 23 1917 during a powder explosion in one of the ship's casemates. Though temporarily stunned, he entered the compartment, saved a man's life, and then reentered the casemate to extinguish burning gunpowder. Bradley moved ashore again in January 1918 to head the Explosives, Fuses, and Primers Section of the Bureau of Ordnance. From there, he went to the Naval Torpedo Station in Keyport, Wash., in August 1919 to serve as a naval inspector. Returning to sea in June 1920, Bradley served as Gunnery Officer in USS TEXAS BB-35 until May 1921. At that time, he reported to the Mare Island Navy Yard to assist in fitting out and commissioning USS CALIFORNIA BB-44. After the battleship went into commission on August 10, he served as her Gunnery Officer. Bradley returned to Keyport in May 1922 for two years of duty at the Naval Torpedo Station as the Naval Inspector in Charge. From July 1924 to November 1926, he commanded USS GOLD STAR AK-12, the Station Ship at Guam in the Mariana Islands. Between late 1926 and the middle of 1929, Bradley served in the Naval Reserve Section in the Bureau of Navigation. Following that tour of duty, he became governor of Guam in June 1929. Bradley resumed sea duty in July 1931 in command of USS BRIDGE AF-1. Two years later, he became Captain of the Yard at the Pearl Harbor Navy Yard. After six months, however, he was transferred to command of USS PORTLAND CA-33. That assignment lasted until June 1937 at which time he was reassigned to the Naval War College as a student. After a year of duty with the Pacific coast section of the Board of Inspection and Survey beginning in May 1938, Capt. Bradley commanded Destroyer Squadron (DesRon) 31, Battle Force, based in San Diego for a year. At the conclusion of that assignment, he resumed duty with the Board of Inspection and Survey on the west coast. He continued in that billet through the end of World War II and until his retirement on August 1 1946. Between 1947 and 1949, Bradley represented California’s 18th Congressional District in the United States House of Representatives. He died at Santa Barbara, Calif., on August 27 1954.

If you have images or information to add to this page, then either contact the Curator or edit this page yourself and add it. See Editing Ship Pages for detailed information on editing this page.


Culgoa AF - History

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Covers :: Military :: WWI :: Navy
RPPC:Naval: A Sailors Prayer, 1918 censored PPC. A 1918 real photo postcard of a Sairor sleeping with the Sailor's Prayer below, affixed with 2 1c Washington booklet singles postmarked Maire Island Naval Shipyard with purple single line "Passed by Censor" handstamp.Price: $25.00

Item #a2798
WW1: Naval Air Station Porto Cousini, Italy to Portland, Or 1918.Price: $75.00

Item #e0138
WW1: Naval Air SZtation, Port Cosini, Italy to Portland, Or, Censored.Price: $75.00

Item #e0138
Naval:WW1: Mute cancel w/ early 1917 censor. Front only.Price: $5.00

Item #h205
Naval:WW1: Mute cancel w/ early 1917 censor. Front only.Price: $5.00

Item #h206
Naval:WW1: 1918 Manuscript censored cover. A 3c rate cover to Seattle, Wa with a 1918 US Navy cds, manuscript "Passed by Censor" and the censoring offical scratched out the name of the ship.Price: $25.00

Item #h223
Naval:WW1: 4 line mute cancel and censor. A black 4 line mute cancellation and "Passed by Censor" handstamp on a cover to Bremerton, Wash.Price: $15.00

Item #h225
Naval:WW1: US Naval Forces, 1918. A 3c Washington affixed to a cover to Washington DC in 1918. Postmarked New York, NY. US Naval Forces Europe Censored handstamp.Price: $20.00

Item #h238
Naval:WW1: 1918, US Naval Forces, Europe. A free cover with a US Navy 1918 cds and a double straight line Censored . US Naval Forces, Europe handstamp in purple.Price: $20.00

Item #h246
Naval:WW1: 1918, US Naval Forces, Europe. A uncancelled cover with a double straight line US Naval Forces, Europe handstamp in purple.Price: $20.00

Item #h248
Naval:WW1: USN Hospital #2, Scotland. A uncancelled cover with a triple straight line Censored H2, US Naval Forces, Europe handstamp in purple from the US Naval Hospital No 2 in Strathpeffer, Scotland.Price: $35.00

Item #h250
Naval:WW1: US Naval Forces, Europe. A GB 1p affixed to a cover with a 8 line circular cancellation with a double straight line Censored LE1C, US Naval Forces, Europe handstamp in purple.Price: $25.00

Item #h251
WW1: USS Florida to Apple Hill, Ontario Canada 1918 censored. backstamped Apple Hill.Price: $35.00

Item #h256
Naval:WW1: US Naval Forces, Scotland. An uncelled postcard of Scotland with a straight line Censored . U S Naval Forces Europe handstamp in purple. The writer states he's leaving the cold here and leaving for Italy.Price: $20.00

Item #h258
Naval:WW1: US Navy, 1918, NSY Bremerton. A 1c/2c Washington affixed to a cover from Puget Sound NSY, Bremerton. Postmarked onboard USS Receiving ship at Puget Sound, Bremerton, Wa in 1918. Small purple boxed Passed by Censor.Price: $35.00

Item #h273
Naval:WW1: US Naval Air Sta, Pauillac, France. A cover from the US Naval Aviation Station, Pauillac, France in 1918. AEF Censor and postmark. Letter enclosed.Price: $60.00

Item #h275
Naval:WW1: US Naval Air Station Europe, 1918. A cover from a sailor at the US NAval Air Station in France. Postmarked US Army Postal service Aug 9, 1918. Faint Double ring anchor Passed by Censor USN handstamp.Price: $20.00

Item #h280
Naval:WW1: USN Hospital #2, Scotland. A free cover with letter can celled with a mute British handstamp and a red manuscripted CENSORED H2, from US Naval Hospital #2 at Strathpeffor, Scotland.Price: $35.00

Item #h285
U.S. Navy 2 Sep 1918 to Buchanan, Mi Straight Line "Passed by Censor".Price: $15.00

Item #h310
WW1:Navy: Great Lakes, Ill Receiving Ship Machine Canx, 1918, YMCA Envelope.Price: $15.00

Item #m1578
S.S. Martha Washington J.W.B Card (mint).Price: $20.00

Item #m2477
S.S. Princess Matoika, J.W.B Card to Rickey, MT 1919 Postmarked Detroit, Mi.Price: $20.00

Item #m2478
WW1: US Navy Base, Europe to North Rose, NY 19xx Censored.Price: $15.00

Item #m3421
AEF in BEF: U.S. Navy Base 29, Cardiff, Wales to Lisbon, OH 1918.Price: $35.00

Item #m4050
AEF in BEF: U.S. Navy Base 29, Cardiff, Wales to Lisbon, OH 1918.Price: $35.00

Item #m4051
Naval:WW1: Naval Air Station, Pauillac, 1918. A picture postcard from a sailor stationed at the Naval Air Station, Pauillace, France in 1918. Cancellation type A7301.Price: $15.00

Item #m432
Naval:WW1:US Naval Base #1, Brest, 1918. A cover from an individual that does not list his organization, postmarked at the US NAval Base #1 at Brest in 1918.Price: $15.00

Item #m433
WW1: Early Usage of Military Postal Express Service postmark 22 Aug 1918 ex: Lowther.Price: $12.00

Item #m4587
WW1: Early Usage of Military Postal Express Service postmark for APO 727 ex: Lowther.Price: $12.00

Item #m4588
WW1: U.S. Naval Air Service, Pauillace, France to Chicago, IL 1919 w/Letter.Price: $30.00

Item #m4838
WW1: APO 748, Chaplin 39th Inf to Russelville, Ark 1919.Price: $15.00

Item #m4884
USS South Dakota, Vladivostok, Siberia to South Manchester, CT 1920 (Rare). The USS South Dakota was stationed in Vladivostok to support the AEF Siberian troops.Price: $650.00

Item #m4921
WW1: J.W.B. card S.S. Princess Matoika, Mint. Issued by the Jewish Welfare Board.Price: $20.00

Item #n1046
WW1: J.W.B. card S.S. Mount Vernon, Mint. Issued by the Jewish Welfare Board. Creased.Price: $17.50

Item #n1047
WW1: Navy: USS Culgoa AF-3 to Westchester, NY 1917. Type 3AC cancellation. R-1 value.Price: $65.00

Item #n1196
WW1: Naval: London, England, 1918. London was the headquarters for the US Naval Forces operating in European ater and was also a popular leave area from the sailors. The postage not not required.Price: $10.00

Item #n1206
WW1: Naval: London, England, 1918. London was the headquarters for the US Naval Forces operating in European ater and was also a popular leave area from the sailors. The postage not not required.Price: $10.00

Item #n1207
WW1: Naval: Inverness, England, 1919. After the was ended the former base at Inverness became a support base for minesweeping operation in the North Sea. The cover was not censored because censoring ceased shortly after the Armistice.Price: $15.00

Item #n1208
WW1: Naval: Inverness, England, 1919. This cover was sent froma sailor stationed in Invergordon and posted marked at the Admiralty Mail Office (AMO) in Inverness. Postage was REQUIRED because the cover was mailed in England to a English address.Price: $30.00

Item #n1209
WW1: Naval: Incoming to Mail Office, Moorgate Hall, London. The US Navy operated a mail distribution center at Moorgate Hall. Mail addressed to this location was then forwarded to the addressee at his current assignment.Price: $15.00

Item #n1216
WW1: Naval: Incoming to Naval HQ fwd to Naval Air Station, Killingholme, 1918. An incoing cover from Red Fork, Oklahoma to US Naval Headquarters, Moorgate HAll. The cover was then forwarded to Naval Air Service Squadron at the Royal Airforce Airfield at Killingholme.Price: $15.00

Item #n1221
WW1: Naval: Liverpool. England, 1919. A YMCA cover postmarked in Liverpool from a sailor who does not indicate his ship or shore station. The cover was mailed after the Armistice.Price: $5.00

Item #n1222
WW1: Naval: Royal Naval Base, Portsmouth, England, 1918. The sender has included in his return address, c/o Capt R.H.Leigh USN. Capt Leigh was asigned to the Royal Navy to help develop for the US Navy, sonar principles and anti-submarine equipment that was invented by the British. The cover was sent thru the British postal system, so it was censored appriately.Price: $35.00

Item #n1224
WW1: Naval: HMS Sarepta, Weymouth, England, 1918. From a sailor known from other correspondance to have been assigned to a special team working with the British on the development of anti-submarine sonar detection equipment. In May and June, Weymouth was the temporary base for a squdron of US Navy subchasers. The Royal Naval yachet HMS Sarepta was used by the US Navy.Price: $40.00

Item #n1225
WW1: Naval: HMS Sarepta, Weymouth, England, 1918. From a sailor known from other correspondance to have been assigned to a special team working with the British on the development of anti-submarine sonar detection equipment. In May and June, Weymouth was the temporary base for a squdron of US Navy subchasers. The Royal Naval yachet HMS Sarepta was used by the US Navy.Price: $40.00

Item #n1226
Naval:WW1: USS Chicago CL-14, Passed by Censor H/S, Type 1z Cancel R-1. NOT in the best of shape.Price: $10.00

Item #n1227
WW1: US Naval Postmark, 1918 on a Glascow, Scotland Postcard.Price: $10.00

Item #n1240
WW1: US Naval Base Europe, 1918 on a Reims, France Postcard.Price: $10.00

Item #n1241
WW1: US Naval Hospital, Canaco, Philippines, 1929, RPPC.Price: $20.00

Item #n1245
WW1: U.S. Naval Forces in Europe to Washington DC, 1918.Price: $15.00

Item #n1246
WW1: Naval: USS New York BB-34 to Minneapolis, Minn, 1919.Price: $30.00

Item #n1289
WW1Naval: USS Pittsburg CA-4 to San Francisco, Ca, 1918. USS Pittsburg Censor Handstamp.Price: $20.00

Item #n1316
USS Pittsburgh CA-4 to San Francisco, Ca 1918.Price: $20.00

Item #n1316
Naval:WW1: USS Arkansas BB-33, 1917, censored. A booklet pair of 2c Washingtons on a 1917 cover to Meridian, Miss from the USS Arkansas BB-33. Straight line black "Passed by Censor".Price: $35.00

Item #n192
WW1: Real Photo Postcard: A.T.S Great Northern at Honolulu Harbor.Price: $25.00

Item #n2016
Naval:WW1: USS Culgoa AF-3, 1918. Free posted cover with US Navy handstamp with manuscript 12/15/18 postmark on an UNCENSORED cover. The ship was in European water at the time of mailing.Price: $35.00

Item #n205
Naval: YMCA Well Done PC, Transpor N.Pacific to Portland, Or, 1919.Price: $20.00

Item #n2122
Naval: USS Aeolus TT-3005 PC to Vancouver, Wa, 1919.Price: $20.00

Item #n2124
Naval:WW1: USS Kansas, BB-21, 1917, PPC. A 1c Washington affixed to a censored picture postcard from USS Kansas in 1917. Blue tripe line "Passed by Censor" and a black "Back the Boys in the Trench . " handstamp.Price: $35.00

Item #n226
Naval:WW1: USS Louisiana BB-19, 1917. A 1c Washington affixed to a real photo postcard of the USS Louisiana, at sea with a double line blue "Passed by Censor Jul 15, 1917" handstamp.Price: $35.00

Item #n235
Naval:WW1: USS Louisiana BB-19, 1917. A 1c Washington affixed to a real photo postcard of the bow of the USS Louisiana, at sea with a double line blue "Passed by Censor" handstamp.Price: $35.00

Item #n236
Naval:WW1: USS Missouri BB-11, 1917. 1c Washington affixed to a picture postcard with a large blue "PASSED BY CENSOR" handsamp.Price: $35.00

Item #n249
Naval:WW1: USS New Jersey BB-16, 1918. 3c Washington affixed to a cover with a single line blue "Passed by Censor" handstamp. Addressed to the Postmaster, Ottumwa, Iowa. Letter enclosed. Stained.Price: $25.00

Item #n256
Naval:WW1: USS Rhode Island BB-17,1917. A 2c Washington affixed to a cover with a red boxed "Passed by Censored" handstamp.Price: $35.00

Item #n281
Naval: USS Glacier AF-4 to Grants Pass, Or, 1918 Unreported Censor Handstamp.Price: $65.00

Item #n2844
Naval: USS Pittsburg CA-4 to Grants Pass, Or, 1918 Earliest Know Usage. EKU listed in Kimes as 5/14/18 This cover dated 1/10/18.Price: $65.00

Item #n2849
Naval:WW1: USS South Carolina BB-26, 1918. A stamp missing from a cover with double ine purple "Passed by Censor Jul 8, 1918" handstamp.Price: $15.00

Item #n287
Naval:WW1: USS Siboney, Cargo ship, 1918. A free posted penalty envelope to Washington DC. No censor handstamp.Price: $15.00

Item #n288
WW1: Naval: USS New Hampshire BB-25 to Stockton, KS, 1918, Censored.Price: $50.00

Item #n2885
WW1: Naval: USS Pueblo CA-7 to Forest Grove, Or, 1917, Censored E.K.U. R-2 cancel. Kimes listed EKU as 13 Jun 1917, this card dated 6 Jun 1917.Price: $250.00

Item #n2898
WW1: Naval: USS Pueblo CA-7 to Buena Vista, Or, 1917, Red Boxed Censor, R-2 Cancel w/Letter.Price: $200.00

Item #n2900
WW1: Naval: USS Arkansas BB-33 to Woodridge, NJ, 1918, Censored. Ty 1z cancel (R-1).Price: $50.00

Item #n2903
WW1: Naval: USS Raleigh C-8 to Brooklyn, NY. 1918, Censored, Ty 1z canx (R-2).Price: $100.00

Item #n2906
Naval:WW1: USS Virginia, BB-17, 1917. 2 1c Washingtons affixed to a patriotic cover with a large double line "Passed by Censor" handstamp.Price: $35.00

Item #n298
USS Lake Daraga to Seattle, Wa 1919.Price: $40.00

Item #n2995
Naval: USS Von Stueben TT-3017 to Roy, Wa 1919 R-2 canx. The PC is in sad shape.Price: $50.00

Item #n2996
Naval: USS Hannibal AG-1 to Mt Carmel, Ct, 1918.Price: $35.00

Item #n3002
USS Chicago IX-5 to Washington DC, 1919. Censored, R-1 canx.Price: $50.00

Item #n3034
Naval:WW1: USS Wyoming BB-32,. A 1c Washington affixed to a picture postcard of of a doll in a Nursing uniform. Large blue single line "Passed by Censor" handstamp.Price: $35.00

Item #n305
Naval:WW1: US Navy, Pass by Censor, 1918. A 2c Washington affixed to a picture postcard of a Navy shipboard messing area. Red "Passed by Censor" and US Navy handstamp. Ship's name is unknown.Price: $15.00

Item #n310
WW1: USS South Dakota, Vadivostok, Russia to Syracuse, NY, 10 Mar 1920.Price: $250.00

Item #n3634
WW1: USS Rhode Island BB-17 to Chicago, Ill, 1971 Censored.Price: $35.00

Item #n3827
WW1: USS Rhode Island BB-17 to Chicago, Ill, 1917, censored.Price: $25.00

Item #n4151
WW1: USS Pueblo ACR-7 to Cleveland, Oh w/Ltr, 1918, censored.Price: $40.00

Item #n4153
USS Kearsarge BB-5 to Reading, Penna, 1918.Price: $80.00

Item #n4193
USS Indiana BB-1 to Toledo, Ohio, 1917 Manuscript Censor.Price: $50.00

Item #n4194
USS Massachusetts BB-2 to Chicago, Ill, 1917 Straight line Canx & Censor.Price: $100.00

Item #n4197
USS Kearsarge BB-5 to Cliftondale, Mass 1917 Block Single Line Censor.Price: $80.00

Item #n4199
USS Kentucky BB-6 to Celina, Ohio 1918 Double Line Censor.Price: $82.00

Item #n4201
USS Ilinois BB-7 to Brooklyn, NY 1917 Boxed Single Line Censor.Price: $60.00

Item #n4202
USS Ilinois BB-7 to Penna, 1918 Self Censored Manuscript,. Sef censored by CO Capt Barker.Price: $80.00

Item #n4205
USS Ilinois BB-7 to Glocester Pt, Va, 1918 Boxed Double LineCensor.Price: $50.00

Item #n4206
USS Wisconsin BB-9 to Kewauee, Ill, 1917 Double Line Censor,.Price: $30.00

Item #n4209
USS Maine B-10 to New York, 1918 Single Line Censor,.Price: $40.00

Item #n4211
USS Ohio BB-12 to Annapolis, MD, 1918 Censored.Price: $40.00

Item #n4215
USS Virginia BB-13 to Hyde Park, Ma, 1917 Censored.Price: $40.00

Item #n4216
USS Virginia BB-13 to Hyde Park, Ma, 1917 Censored. Mailed at Penna Terminal, NY.Price: $20.00

Item #n4217
USS Nebraska BB-14 to Orleans, Ind, 1917 Censored.Price: $50.00

Item #n4219
USS Georgia BB-15 to Sudbury, Ma, 1918 Censored. Letter enclosed. Censor mark unlisted in Kimes.Price: $50.00

Item #n4222
USS Georgia BB-15 to Southport, NC, 1918 Censored. Censor mark unlisted in Kimes.Price: $50.00

Item #n4223

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Culgoa AF - History

Before dawn on 28 December 1908 a powerful earthquake and tsunami struck south Italy, devastating the Sicilian city of Messina. The death toll was terrible, with estimates of those killed running up to two hundred thousand. Other nations' navies sent men and ships to help Italian authorities with recovery and relief work. Among these were the British, whose large Mediterranean Fleet soon had two battleships, five cruisers and a destroyer at the scene. The Russians, whose training squadron was also in the vicinity, provided men from several battleships, cruisers and gunboats. While digging through the remains of collapsed buildings to rescue survivors and locate the bodies of the dead, some of the Russian sailors lost their own lives when an aftershock buried them in rubble.

The U.S. Navy, whose presence in the Mediterranean was minimal at the time, initially dispatched the station ship (and former luxury yacht) Scorpion from Constantinople, Turkey. She left there on 31 December 1908, arrived at Messina on 3 January and remained there until the 8th, when she began her return voyage to Turkish waters.

More U.S. Navy ships came later. When the earthquake struck, the U.S. Atlantic Fleet's battleship force was steaming up the Red Sea toward the Suez Canal, nearing the end of its passage from the Far East during its great World cruise. The fleet's Commander in Chief, Rear Admiral Charles S. Sperry, ordered the supply ship Culgoa , carrying hundreds of tons of food, to head for the disaster zone as soon as she could get through the canal. She left Port Said, Egypt on 4 January, arrived at Messina on the 8th and was there or at Naples until 15 January. While Culgoa was on her way, six Navy surgeons from the battleships, as well as medical supplies, were put aboard the tender Yankton (another converted yacht) and, on 5 January, set off from Port Said, arriving at the stricken city on the 9th and remaining until the 14th.

They were followed by Sperry's flagship, the battleship Connecticut , which called at Messina on 9 January, while en route to Naples. All, or nearly all, of the photographs presented below come from the collection of one of her officers. The battleship Illinois arrived on 14 January to help recover the bodies of U.S. Consul Cheney and his wife from beneath the ruins. This mission, involving hazardous tunneling through the ruined Consulate building, was soon completed. Illinois sailed the next day for Valetta, Malta, where she rejoined her division.

A large quantity of supplies, originally intended for Sperry's fleet, along with a hastily loaded prefabricated hospital left the United States at the end of December on board the Navy supply ship Celtic , arriving at Naples on 19 January 1909 and then taken to Messina. Celtic and her crew were in the Sicily-Naples area for about two months, distributing urgently needed supplies to towns along the Sicilian coast, erecting temporary shelters and otherwise helping the quake's survivors. When Celtic left to return home on 21 March, Assistant Surgeon Martin Donelson remained in Sicily with a detachment to construct housing and provide further medical assistance. Donelson was ordered back to the United States on 10 June 1909, bringing to completion more than five months of Sicilian earthquake relief work by U.S. Navy personnel.

This page features all the views we have concerning the 28 December 1908 earthquake at Messina, Sicily, and subsequent relief efforts.

If you want higher resolution reproductions than the Online Library's digital images, see: How to Obtain Photographic Reproductions.

Click on the small photograph to prompt a larger view of the same image.

Messina Earthquake, 28 December 1908

Street in Messina, Sicily, showing damage caused by the earthquake. Photographed in January 1909.

Collection of Lieutenant Commander Richard Wainwright, 1928.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 123KB 740 x 565 pixels

Messina Earthquake, 28 December 1908

Earthquake survivors and destruction in Messina, Sicily. Photographed in January 1909.

Collection of Lieutenant Commander Richard Wainwright, 1928.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 123KB 740 x 485 pixels

Messina Earthquake, 28 December 1908

Refugees waiting for transportation at Messina, Sicily, where USS Culgoa and USS Yankton fed many hungry earthquake survivors. Photographed in January 1909.

Collection of Lieutenant Commander Richard Wainwright, 1928.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 103KB 740 x 500 pixels

Messina Earthquake, 28 December 1908

Italian soldiers recovering earthquake victims from wrecked buildings in Messina, Sicily. Photographed on or about 9 January 1909. Ships of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet called at Messina to render what assistance they could provide.

Collection of Lieutenant Commander Richard Wainwright, 1928.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 72KB 540 x 765 pixels

USS Culgoa (1898-1922, later AF-3)

At Messina, Italy (Sicily) in January 1909 to render assistance to the victims of the 28 December 1908 earthquake.
She was stores ship for the "Great White Fleet" during its 1907-1909 World cruise.

Collection of Lieutenant Commander Richard Wainwright, USN, 1920.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 41KB 740 x 465 pixels

Messina Earthquake, 28 December 1908

The city of Messina, Sicily, seen from USS Connecticut (Battleship # 18) after she had arrived to provide earthquake relief, circa 9 January 1909.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 69KB 900 x 550 pixels

Messina Earthquake, 28 December 1908

Russian Midshipmen's Training Detachment and USS Connecticut (Battleship # 18) off Messina to provide earthquake relief, 9 January 1909.
Connecticut , in the right background with white hull, was then in the Mediterranean during the final stages of the "Great White Fleet" World cruise.
The Russian ships, in the center wearing grey paint, are ( from right to left ): armored cruiser Admiral Makarov , battleship Slava , battleship Tsessarevich , and (probably) cruisers Bogatyr and Oleg .


Great White Fleet Page 4


Cachets should be listed in chronological order based on earliest known usage. Use the postmark date or best guess. This applies to add-on cachets as well.

The covers in this category are split among several pages:
 
Page 0   (Great White Fleet Postcards)
Page 1   (USPS Postmarks)
Page 2   (USPS Postmarks)
Page 3   (USPS Postmarks)
Page 4   (USPS Postmarks)
Page 5   (Ship Postmarks to 05/31/08)
Page 6   (Ship Postmarks from 06/01/08)
Page 7   (Ship Postmarks from 07/01/08)
Page 8   (Ship Postmarks from 08/01/08)
Page 9   (Ship Postmarks from 10/01/08)
Page 10   (Ship Postmarks from 01/01/09)

Thumbnail Link
To Cachet
Close-Up Image
Thumbnail Link
To Full
Cover Front Image
Thumbnail Link
To Postmark
or Back Image
Postmark Date
Postmark Type
Killer Bar Text
Ship
---------
Category

2008-08-09
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS CONNECTICUT BB-18 Station"
USS Connecticut BB-18

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

Postmark designed by Phil Schreiber and USS New Jersey Chapter No. 90, USCS
"Type 3 Foreign Ports of Call" series of cancels.

2008-08-09
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS CONNECTICUT BB-18 Station"
USS Connecticut BB-18

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2008-08-09
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS CONNECTICUT BB-18 Station"
USS Connecticut BB-18

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2008-08-09
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS CONNECTICUT BB-18 Station"
USS Connecticut BB-18

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2008-08-09
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS CONNECTICUT BB-18 Station"
USS Connecticut BB-18

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2008-08-18
USPS Pictorial
"Great White Fleet Station"
Los Angeles, CA

Port Visit of the Great White Fleet

2008-08-18
USPS Pictorial
"Great White Fleet Station"
Los Angeles, CA

Port Visit of the Great White Fleet

2008-08-20
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS RHODE ISLAND BB-17 Station"
USS Rhode Island BB-17
Staten Island NY

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

Postmark designed by Phil Schreiber and USS New Jersey Chapter No. 90, USCS
"Type 3 Foreign Ports of Call" series of cancels.

2008-08-20
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS RHODE ISLAND BB-17 Station"
USS Rhode Island BB-17
Staten Island NY

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2008-08-20
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS RHODE ISLAND BB-17 Station"
USS Rhode Island BB-17
Staten Island NY

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2008-08-20
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS NEBRASKA BB-14 Station"
USS Nebraska BB-14
San Diego CA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

Postmark designed by Phil Schreiber and USS New Jersey Chapter No. 90, USCS
"Type 3 Foreign Ports of Call" series of cancels.

2008-08-20
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS NEBRASKA BB-14 Station"
USS Nebraska BB-14
San Diego CA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2008-10-02
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS WISCONSIN BB-9 Station"
USS Wisconsin BB-9
Norfolk VA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

Postmark designed by Phil Schreiber and USS New Jersey Chapter No. 90, USCS
"Type 3 Foreign Ports of Call" series of cancels.

2008-10-02
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS WISCONSIN BB-9 Station"
USS Wisconsin BB-9
Norfolk VA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2008-10-02
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS WISCONSIN BB-9 Station"
USS Wisconsin BB-9
Norfolk VA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2008-10-18
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS KENTUCKY BB-6 Station"
USS Kentucky BB-6
Staten Island NY

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

Postmark designed by Phil Schreiber and USS New Jersey Chapter No. 90, USCS
"Type 3 Foreign Ports of Call" series of cancels.

2008-10-18
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS KENTUCKY BB-6 Station"
USS Kentucky BB-6
Staten Island NY

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2008-12-13
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS GEORGIA BB-15 Station"
USS Georgia BB-15
Norfolk VA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

Postmark designed by Phil Schreiber and USS New Jersey Chapter No. 90, USCS
"Type 3 Foreign Ports of Call" series of cancels.

2008-12-13
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS GEORGIA BB-15 Station"
USS Georgia BB-15
Norfolk VA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2009-01-07
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS VERMONT BB-20 Station"
USS Vermont BB-20
Norfolk VA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

Postmark designed by Phil Schreiber and USS New Jersey Chapter No. 90, USCS
"Type 3 Foreign Ports of Call" series of cancels.

2009-01-07
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS VERMONT BB-20 Station"
USS Vermont BB-20
Norfolk VA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2009-01-08
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS LOUISIANA BB-19 Station"
USS Louisiana BB-19
Norfolk VA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

Postmark designed by Phil Schreiber and USS New Jersey Chapter No. 90, USCS
"Type 3 Foreign Ports of Call" series of cancels.

2009-01-08
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS LOUISIANA BB-19 Station"
USS Louisiana BB-19
Norfolk VA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2009-01-09
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS GLACIER AF-4 Station"
USS Glacier AF-4
San Diego CA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

Postmark designed by Phil Schreiber and USS New Jersey Chapter No. 90, USCS
"Type 3 Foreign Ports of Call" series of cancels.

2009-01-09
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS GLACIER AF-4 Station"
USS Glacier AF-4
San Diego CA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2009-01-09
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS ALABAMA BB-8 Station"
USS Alabama BB-8
San Diego CA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

Postmark designed by Phil Schreiber and USS New Jersey Chapter No. 90, USCS
"Type 3 Foreign Ports of Call" series of cancels.

2009-01-09
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS ALABAMA BB-8 Station"
USS Alabama BB-8
San Diego CA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2009-01-09
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS YANKTON PY Station"
USS Yankton Patrol Yacht
Norfolk VA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

Postmark designed by Phil Schreiber and USS New Jersey Chapter No. 90, USCS
"Type 3 Foreign Ports of Call" series of cancels.

2009-01-09
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS YANKTON PY Station"
USS Yankton Patrol Yacht
Norfolk VA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2009-01-11
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS MISSOURI BB-11 Station"
USS Missouri BB-11
Philadelphia PA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

Postmark designed by Phil Schreiber and USS New Jersey Chapter No. 90, USCS
"Type 3 Foreign Ports of Call" series of cancels.

2009-01-11
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS MISSOURI BB-11 Station"
USS Missouri BB-11
Philadelphia PA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2009-01-21
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS KEARSARGE BB-5 Station"
USS Kearsarge BB-5
Philadelphia PA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

Postmark designed by Phil Schreiber and USS New Jersey Chapter No. 90, USCS
"Type 3 Foreign Ports of Call" series of cancels.

2009-01-21
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS KEARSARGE BB-5 Station"
USS Kearsarge BB-5
Philadelphia PA

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2009-01-31
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS CULGOA AF-3 Station"
USS Culgoa AF-3
Staten Island NY

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

Postmark designed by Phil Schreiber and USS New Jersey Chapter No. 90, USCS
"Type 3 Foreign Ports of Call" series of cancels.

2009-01-31
USPS Pictorial Postmark
"USS CULGOA AF-3 Station"
USS Culgoa AF-3
Staten Island NY

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary
of the Great White Fleet

2009-02-22
USPS Pictorial
"Great White Fleet Station"
Norfolk VA

Return of the Great White Fleet

2009-02-22
USPS Pictorial
"Great White Fleet Station"
Norfolk VA

Return of the Great White Fleet

If you have images to add to this page, then either contact the Curator or edit this page yourself and add them. See Editing Cachet Maker Pages for detailed information on editing this page.


Combat Logistics History

The idea of taking supplies to ships at sea and handling them across the water was new to the Navy at the turn of the century. Sailing ships had been able to stay where the action was for weeks or months sea breezes provided the power, Sailor's diets were less complex, and round shot was more easily stocked than bombs and missiles.

The US Navy began to show some interest in logistics in 1888, when Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan introduced both the term and the concept to naval strategy in a lecture at the Naval War College. A subsequent lecture that year by another officer focused more directly on naval logistics, while still others, in articles and essays, soon began to stress the need for a system of bases for fleet support and to examine the economic foundations of naval power. Mahan himself asserted that logistics -- although he actually used the word infrequently -- dominated warfare. Good supply lines, fixed and floating bases, and adequate stocks of fuel were essential for the projection of seapower.

The idea of supplying under way ships at sea emerged as sail gave way to steam, and the steamship with its huge appetite for coal. The large men-of-war burned 50 tons of coal a day, and to keep their bunkers full, had to return to port every 10 days or so to re-coal. The first practicable plans for coaling vessels at sea were put forward by two Royal Navy officers -- Lidger & Miller -- in 1887. The method most favored by the British Admiralty involved a cableway running from the collier, which was under tow, to the warship.

The Navy learned a lesson in 1898 during the Spanish-American War. The Spanish Fleet was blockaded in the Harbor of Santiago, Cuba. When the Spanish made a run for the open sea, three of our ships (including the old battleship MASSACHUSETTS) were 45 miles away being re-coaled at Guantanamo. The need for on-station at-sea refueling was obvious. Early efforts to solve the problem led to the development of a high-line for carrying bags of coal from a coaler to a warship, one in the wake of the other. World War One saw the beginning of the Navy's conversion to oil- burning ships, and soon the colliers were out of business.

The United States Navy was the first to carry out under-way coaling experiments in 1899. The first significant underway replenishment (UNREP) operation at sea was with the collier USS Marcellus and the Navy warship USS Massachusetts in 1899. The initial British trials of the "Lidger-Miller" system were conducted in 1902. These involved the collier MURIEL and the battleship TRAFALGAR. The collier was towed by the battleship at a speed between 8 and 9.5 knots, with 30 tons of coal an hour being passed between the ships [coaling in port at rest could achieve rates nearly ten times this fast].

The "Great White Fleet" sent around the world by President Theodore Roosevelt from 16 December 1907 to 22 February 1909 consisted of sixteen new battleships of the Atlantic Fleet. The battleships were painted white except for gilded scrollwork on their bows. The Atlantic Fleet battleships only later came to be known as the "Great White Fleet." The fourteen-month long voyage was a grand pageant of American sea power. The squadrons were manned by 14,000 sailors. They covered some 43,000 miles and made twenty port calls on six continents.

The battleships were accompanied during their voyage by several auxiliary ships. USS Culgoa (storeship, Hampton Roads to Manila) USS Glacier (storeship), USS Panther (repair ship), USS Yankton (tender), and USS Relief (hospital ship). The fleet arrived at Suez, Egypt, on 3 January 1909. In Egypt, word was received of an earthquake in Sicily, thus affording an opportunity for the United States to show it's friendship to Italy by offering aid to the sufferers. The Connecticut, Illinois, Culgoa and Yankton were dispatched to Messina at once. The crew of the Illinois recovered the bodies of the American consul and his wife, entombed in the ruins. The Scorpion, the Fleet's station ship at Constantinople, and the Celtic, a refrigerator ship fitted out in New York, were hurried to Messina, relieving the Connecticut and Illinois, so that they could continue on the cruise.

The auxiliaries did not include colliers (coal supply ship). Coal, commonly referred as "black diamonds," were the ship's sole source of power. Ships would normally go into port and take on coal every two weeks. "Coaling ship" was an all hands evolution and a dirty job. It would take several days to coal a ship. All the deckhands would go down into the collier and fill these big bags with about 500 pounds. Then they'd hoist theem over to those down in the coal bunkers, who would spread out the coal with shovels until all the bunkers were full to the top. Afterward, the crew would spend several more days cleaning the ship, inside and out, fore and aft, since coal dust settled everywhere.

The cruise provided the officers and men of the fleet with thorough at-sea training and brought about improvements in formation steaming, coal economy, gunnery and morale. It also stressed the need for overseas bases that could provide better coaling and supply services along with more auxiliary ships. Foreign coaling ships or ports were used 90 percent of the time for coaling and resupply.

Combat Logistics Between the Wars

Navy Secretary Edwin Denby, under President Harding, had created a Battle Force, a Base Force, a Control Force, and a Scouting Force. The Battle Force included the Navy's battle line and carriers the Control Force, cruisers and destroyers the Base Force, a logistic train of colliers, oilers, and cargo vessels. In 1923 fleet maneuvers, the cruiser Omaha was refueled by employing an abreast technique. However tentative, the Base Force was exploring the concept of underway replenishment.

In 1937 British experiments led to the derrick method of abeam refuelling. The tanker and warship steer parallel courses, with refuelling carried out by means of a three and half inch bronze fuelling pipe supported by a light steel line carried by a derrick sited in the waist of the tanker. One of the principal problems in abeam refuelling was the suction effect caused by the interaction of the bow waves of the two vessels. This caused the vessels to be drawn together.

In 1942 two German tankers, whose task was to replenish the battleship Bismarck, were captured with all their equipment. These were closely studied and the Admiralty was greatly impressed, especially by the use of rubber hoses which were found to be vastly superior to the bronze hoses the British had used until that time. However, due to the shortage of materials, the changeover could not be undertaken immediately.

Combat Logistics in World War II

It took the pressure of the Second World War in the Pacific, which reached into the far corners of that ocean, to make Underway Replenishment (UNREP) a regular feature of Naval Operations. The war in the Pacific made new demands on the Navy -- supply lines had to be extended, quickly, in order to project power across the oceans and keep it there.

The Navy had by the time of World War II developed a system of underway replenishment for its fleet units. World War II was a war of logistics. It was a war of distances, advance bases, and was a strategy driven and constrained by logistics. This was particularly true in the Pacific Theater for both the United States and Japan. World War II in the Pacific was essentially a maritime war. It was on the sea that Japan depended for materials to sustain her via the sea she launched her aggressions, and the first attack was intended to destroy the nucleus of the U.S. Fleet at Pearl Harbor. The vital core of the American military effort was the contest for control of the seas, from which all the other operations-at sea, amphibious, on land, or in the air- branched and received their support.

"Underway replenishment was the U.S. Navy's secret weapon of World War II" according to Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz. New concepts and techniques in mobile logistic support and underway replenishment made a high tempo of sustained operations possible. U.S. submarines took a heavy toll of Japan's warships and devastated the merchant marine, thereby servering her lifeline.

Whereas some of the key challenges in the South Pacific had initially been long steaming distances and establishing advance bases as a defensive perimeter for fleet support, and from which to stage subsequent assault operations, the problem with the Central Pacific was that there were no potential locations for advance bases between Pearl Harbor and the Islands to be taken, the Gilberts, Marshalls, and Carolines. The answer was a mobile logistics base--a floating base. Under the able direction of Vice Admiral Calhoun, Commander Service Force Pacific Fleet, Service Squadron 4 was created and commissioned on 01 November 1943, just before the Marshall Islands operations commenced. Bernard Brodie called the Service Squadron a "strategic surprise" to the Japanese.

By 1943 the Fast Carrier Task Force, Pacific Fleet, was supported by the Service Squadron, Pacific Fleet, a mobile logistics and underway replenishment force that accelerated the fleet's westward move to the Gilberts, Marshalls, Marianas, Peliliu, Iwo Jima, Okinawa. The mobile logistics base consisted of repair ships, tugs, mine sweepers, concrete fuel barges, barges loaded with general stores, and ammunition lighters. During the Campaign against the Gilberts, fleet oilers were able to operate unescorted outside the range of Japanese aircraft and provide service to the fleet. When the Marshalls campaign began, they had to be escorted. Within eleven months, the US fleet raced 4,200 miles across the central Pacific, employing Fast Carrier Task Force, Army- Marine amphibious forces, and a fleet train of 2,930 auxiliaries.

Combat Logistics in Korea

When the Korean War began in June 1950, underway replenishment of combat ships was, though not a lost art, very hard to come by in the western Pacific. Responsibility for the logistic support of the Pacific Fleet and of other Pacific naval activities lay with the Service Force Pacific Fleet. A severe local shortage of auxiliaries suitable for this demanding logistics task meant that warships had to retire to ports in Japan whenever they needed fresh supplies of ammunition and provisions. In an intense combat environment, that was every few days. The time spent in transit to and from port was time not available for combat operations, clearly a wasteful situation and one that was painfully troublesome in the difficult weeks of July and August 1950.

The emphasis on floating support for fleet units, made necessary by the limited base facilities in the Western Pacific, was desirable for other reasons as well. A prime virtue of naval power is its mobility if the bases can also move this virtue is increased. For reasons of economy, and to obviate the need for an extensive shore establishment in Japan which would itself be logistically costly and complicating, mobile support was also desirable. But complete floating support for the fleet was well beyond the capabilities of the Service Force as then constituted, or indeed under any circumstances short of pretty complete mobilization. Again it is worth emphasizing how fortunate it was for this campaign that the resources and productive facilities of the Japanese base were close to hand. In the Second World War almost complete support for forces overseas had been provided from the continental United States. But now at midcentury the effort was made to live off the land, and the foraging party reappeared, not in the form of the sergeant with his squad, but in that of the supply officer armed with contract and fountain pen.

Fortunately, the necessary auxiliary ships -- oilers, ammunition ships and reefers -- were soon on their way across the Pacific to the war zone. By Autumn 1950, replenishment at sea was again the routine undertaking that it had been during the great Pacific war just a half-decade earlier. Coupled with the sufficiency in numbers of carriers and gun ships, that meant that ships could replenish every few days while staying near the Korean coast, and thus would still be available to apply their firepower on short notice.

As the Korean War settled into a "routine" during 1951, the resupply of Navy ships at sea continued in the pattern established during the latter part of 1950. Task Force 77 and other warships in the Sea of Japan were replenished by a regularly-maintained force of two tankers, one or two ammunition ships, plus such other supply ships as were needed. Navy ships in the Yellow Sea were supported by logistics ships sent out on an individual basis.

The supply requirements of intense air and gunfire bombardment, compounded by the demands of fuel-hungry jet aircraft, ensured that these logistics ships were kept very busy shuttling between the operating forces and rear-area ports. As the war continued, the efficiency of underway replenishment improved as much as an evolving "state of the art" allowed. Night-time resupply, previously seen as unacceptably dangerous, became routine, allowing ships to work almost around-the-clock, flying and shooting during the day and replenishing fuel and ammunition after dark -- a very punishing pace for crews, but one that could be sustained during a military crisis.

This vigorous logistics experience had a great impact on the post-Korean War Navy. New logistics ships were built, and existing hulls modernized to increase capacity. These incorporated greatly improved supply-handling gear and made possible multi-product transfers during an single period alongside.

The problems of underway replenishment and of accelerated consumption of fuel and ammunition led to experimental work with an ex-German U-boat supply ship to test the theory of one-stop replenishment, and to planning for a composite type which would carry ammunition, petroleum products, and miscellaneous cargo as well. But this development would take time, and more immediate help came from the construction of six new 20-knot fleet oilers, 100 feet longer than any previously available, of which the first was launched in late 1953, and from the five new ammunition ships of the Suribachi class, built from the hull up for this purpose, and providing higher speed, new methods of storage, and new and faster handling machinery.

Combat Logistics in Vietnam

In 1964, as the war in Vietnam expanded, Subic Bay became the focal point of Rainier's 7th Fleet support activities. There when the Tonkin Gulf crisis occurred, 4-5 August, she put to sea immediately and steamed to the gulf to rearm carriers conducting strikes on North Vietnamese bases. For the next months, Rainier operated between Subic Bay and replenishment areas off Vietnam.

In Vietnam, the geographical limitations of the war caused the United States to supply the troops on a scale never before realized in modern warfare. Improved communications, automatic data processing equipment (ADPE), and increased use of aircraft for resupply made the difference. Supply shortages occurred but they were the result of production stoppages, lack of centralized control of assets, lack of supply discipline in the field, lack of trained supply personnel at organizational and field level, and poor logistics planning and programing.

Underway replenishment became a way of life for ships on Market Time by 1967. Navy supply ships bringing fuel, ammunition, food, mail and personnel sail up and down the Vietnamese coast by day and night. The cutter pulls alongside about 100 to 120 feet from the ship and the cargo is passed via highline while the ships maintain constant speed. At times the supply ships are passing provisions to two ships at once one on either side.

By 1968, almost one-half of the combat missions flown over North Vietnam were from the decks of carriers. Carrier-based strikes were also conducted regularly over South Vietnam in support of ground-based and air combat missions (both strategic and tactical "surgical strikes"). The major surface combatants rotated in and out of the carrier task groups to other assignments such as gunfire support (shore bombardment) and escort of the underway replenishment groups (URG). The carrier task groups (CTG) always remained about the same size, but the identity of the surface combatants in the group was constantly changing.

Carrier operations in the northern gulf were conducted from the vicinity of a geographic reference point Y, called "Point Yankee," so called because Y is "Yankee" in the phonetic alphabet. Carrier assignment to SPECOPS in the northern gulf came to be known as "Yankee Station." Operations in the southern Gulf of Tonkin into South Vietnam were conducted from an area referenced to a grid lock point, "Point Dixie," so that carriers conducting the air war in the South were termed at "Dixie Station."

Normally three carriers were at Yankee Station at all times, each conducting air operations for twelve hours, and then repairing, replenishing, and doing maintenance for the next twelve hours. One carrier operated from noon until midnight, the second from midnight until noon and the third covering the daylight hours. This meant that targets were covered twenty-four hours a day, and the heaviest effort was during daylight hours when tactical air was most accurate and effective.

Although the carriers went into the naval base at Subic after almost every period on the line, this was mainly for ship repairs, the off-loading of dud aircraft (those which had received battle damage and were unable to be flown off), and crew R&R. More than 99 percent of all other logistical support ammunition, ship and aircraft fuel, food, and general supplies was delivered to the carriers from logistics support ships during underway replenishment at sea.

In turn, most of those underway replenishment ships were loaded out in U.S. ports. The ammunition ships (AE) would load out at the depot in Concord, California, and then transit to the Gulf of Tonkin. The AE would transfer ammunition to the carriers several times a day for a month or so until their holds were empty. Then they would go to a U.S. depot for another load of ammunition. The same routine applied to the general stores ships, which delivered fresh vegetables to the crews directly from California farms. The oilers carried both aviation fuel (JP-5) and ship's fuel. Although much of this came from the Continental United States, some was also picked up from U.S. petroleum, oil, and lubricant (POL) stocks at storage sites in the Pacific where it had been delivered by commercial tankers.

The underway replenishment groups, known as URGs, operated as task groups in the Gulf of Tonkin and consisted of an ammunition ship, a fleet oiler, and one or more store ships which carried a variety of consumables. Each carrier replenished virtually every twenty-four hours from at least one of the ships in the URG: from an oiler to top-off ship and aviation fuel, from an ammunition ship to fill the magazines, and from a store ship to take on food or replacement parts. By this system of constant replenishment, the carriers did not wait for their fuel bunkers or magazines to become low or empty. They were kept topped-off so that the ship always had about ten days supply of fuel and ammo n the event logistics support was interrupted, or so the carriers could be sent on an unsupported mission immediately without taking time to load out.

Combat Logistics Post-Cold War

During the two decades of the Cold War that followed Vietnam and preceded the 1990-91 crisis with Iraq, the Navy developed a logistic support system that enabled its own combat forces to remain continuously deployed in waters far from the United States. Forward naval bases in the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, and the Indian Ocean were important to this global establishment. The fleet, however, was not tied to shore bases, as it demonstrated during 1980s operations in the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf. A contingent of mobile logistic ships provided combatants, via underway replenishment, with the wherewithal to fight and remain on the line.

When DESERT SHIELD began in August 1990, the top logistics priority was to ensure Navy ships in the Persian Gulf, North Arabian Sea and Eastern Mediterranean were ready for battle at a moment's notice. Additionally, ships making preparations for deployment from their U.S. homeports had tobe stocked with all the goods and hardware they (and their embarked Marines and airwings in the case of amphibious ships and aircraft carriers) would need to carry the fight to Iraq, half a world away.

Naval Supply Center (NSC), Norfolk, for example, was flooded with requests from ships gearing up for deployment. Dozens of Norfolk-based ships were scheduled for short notice deployment. The USS John F. Kennedy (CV 67) battle group had to accomplish the normally 30-day process of locating and storing the supplies necessary for a six month deployment in just four days.

John F. Kennedy alone requested some 700 pallets of food. By the time she departed, in company with her escorts, NSC Norfolk had provided the group with 2 million fresh eggs, 185,000 pounds of hot dogs, 250,000 pounds of chicken and 400,000 pounds of hamburger. During the first two weeks of August 1990, NSC's fuels division delivered 525,000 barrels of fuel oil to departing ships and squadrons-- more than twice the normal amount -- forcing the center to dip into its reserve supply. NSC did one month of normal business ($1 million) in two days during its furious effort to supply deploying ships and aircraft.

DESERT SHIELD/STORM presented a major logistics challenge: coordinating the movement of a huge volume of supplies and equipment in the smoothest, most expeditious manner. The Naval Logistic Support Force (NAVLOGSUPFOR) was established specifically to meet the DESERT SHIELD logistic challenge and relieve operational commanders afloat and ashore from much of logistics management burden.

Keeping up to 115 combatant ships battle ready was a full-time job. Most resupply operations were carried out at sea by combat logistic force (CLF) ships, who were in turn supplied through expeditionary forward logistics sites. The CLF ships deployed during DESERT SHIELD/STORM, along with various Military Sealift Command and Ready Reserve Force ships, had the monumental task of supplying six carriers, two battleships, two command ships, two hospital ships, 31 amphibious ships and 40 other combatants induding cruisers, destroyers, frigates, submarines and minesweepers.

Central Command (CENTCOM) had been building its plan for taking down Iraq for well over a year by the time war kicked off on 20 March 2003. The Military Sealift Command (MSC) managed the Combat Logistics Force (CLF), providing fuel, food, ammunition, spare parts, and other supplies to combatant ships. These ships provided underway replenishment to battle forces in order to sustain combat readiness without frequent port visits. Two hospital ships were deployed to the theater. Historically, the flow of supplies tended to move from reception areas?seaports and airfields?into holding areas for distribution to the separate chains of supply that fed the service components conducting tactical operations. This was less the case with regard to naval forces, where the flow of logistics via the underway replenishment system moved directly to the naval forces at sea. But here, too, naval forces drew supply from theater stockpiles.

By July 2003, four of the 16 Navy fleet at sea underway replenishment ships normally operating in the MSC Atlantic region are still supporting OIF. The staff at MSC Europe, headquartered in Naples, Italy, and 36 reservists worked around-the-clock in the European region facilitating the flow of 124 MSC ships supporting OIF.

The USS Constellation (CV 64) Carrier Strike Group (CSG) returned to San Diego 02 June 2003, following a successful seven-month deployment in support of Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF), Enduring Freedom and Southern Watch. Rainier, the Constellation CSG's resupply and refueling ship, played an integral role. Rainier, homeported in Bremerton, Wash., is a fast combat support ship, which conducted more than 240 Underway Replenishment (UNREP) operations, besting the ship's earlier UNREP record of 178, and enabling ships to remain on station longer without having to pull into port for supplies. While Rainier usually provides for about 24 ships during a six-month deployment, during OIF, Rainier provided for 64 ships, completing up to six UNREP evolutions per day. Rainier received and issued more than 135 million gallons of fuel and 25,000 pallets (15,000 tons) of material that included mail, dry goods, food and 10 million pounds of ordnance to the CSG and coalition forces. The embarked helicopter detachment from Helicopter Support Squadron (HC) 11 contributed to move 9,000 tons of material via Vertical Replenishment.


U.S.A.F. Thunderbirds | America's Ambassadors in Blue

In 1947, while the jet age was still in its infancy, military aviation was hurtled into the future with the creation of the U.S. Air Force as a separate service. Just six years later, on May 25, 1953, the Air Force’s official air demonstration team, designated the 3600th Air Demonstration Unit, was activated at Luke Air Force Base, Ariz. The unit adopted the name “Thunderbirds,” influenced in part by the strong Native American culture and folklore from the southwestern United States where Luke Air Force Base is located.

Seven officers and 22 enlisted were selected for the first demonstration team. Major Dick Catledge, a training squadron commander at Luke AFB, was chosen as the team’s leader. Twins Bill and Buck Pattillo were selected and flew the left and right wing, respectively. The Pattillos, both captains, were ideal choices as both had flown with a demonstration team for the previous three years. For the difficult position of slot, the position sandwiched between both wingmen and behind the leader, Capt. Bob Kanaga was selected. The spare pilot was Capt. Bob McCormick. Like the Pattillo brothers, he also had demonstration team experience. First Lieutenant Aubry Brown served as the maintenance officer for the team. Lieutenant Brown, along with Master Sgt. Earl Young, selected 21 enlisted men to help maintain the team’s aircraft. Captain Bill Brock was the final officer selected for the team. He served as the information officer and team narrator.

From these humble beginnings and this group of men, the Air Force Thunderbird legend was born.

The team flew and maintained the F-84G Thunderjet. The straight-wing configuration of the F-84G was considered well suited for aerobatic and demonstration maneuvers, though the aircraft could not exceed the speed of sound.

A series of formation aerobatics, lasting a total of 15 minutes, comprised the original demonstration. The “solo” was not originally incorporated into the demonstration, however, as the season progressed, the team took opportunities to perform “solo” maneuvers with a spare aircraft.

Always trying to display the most advanced fighters of the age, the swept-wing F-84F Thunderstreak became the team’s new aircraft in 1955.

After one season in the F-84F Thunderstreak, the Thunderbirds traded aircraft again and became the world’s first supersonic aerial demonstration team as it transitioned to the F-100C Super Sabre in 1956. That same year, to simplify logistics and maintenance for the aircraft, the Thunderbirds moved to Nellis AFB, Nev. Although never a regular part of the show, the solo would fly supersonic at the request of an air show sponsor in 1956. Eventually, the Federal Aviation Administration banned all supersonic flight at air shows, and consequently, today’s sequence is entirely subsonic.

Nearly forgotten, the F-105B Thunderchief performed only six shows between April 26 and May 9, 1964. Following an unfortunate accident in the F-105, the team transitioned back to the Super Sabre following the incident and the F-100 remained with the team for nearly 13 years.

The Thunderbirds started the 1969 training season still in the F-100Ds, but in the spring of 1969, received the first of the new McDonnell Douglas F-4E Phantom IIs and began the team’s conversion.

The F-4’s conversion was the most extensive in the team’s history. Among several other modifications, the paint scheme changed due to the variations in chemicals, which allows paint used on the F-4 to resist heat and friction at Mach II speeds. As a result, the white paint base was developed and remains a part of today’s Thunderbird aircraft design.

In 1974, a spreading fuel crisis inspired a new aircraft for the team, the T-38A Talon. Although the Talon did not fulfill the Thunderbirds tradition of flying front-line jet fighters, it did demonstrate the capabilities of a prominent Air Force aircraft.

Remaining true to its character to showcase the latest advancement in America’s fighter technology, the first red, white and blue F-16A assigned to the Thunderbirds was delivered to Nellis AFB on Jun. 22, 1982. Due to the conversion to the new aircraft, there were no official shows flown in 1982. The team flew the F-16 during the 1983 show season making it the team’s ninth aircraft and once again returning to flying a front-line fighter.

In 1997, the Thunderbirds performed 57 demonstrations for more than 12 million people in the spirit and theme of the Air Force’s 50th anniversary. The year was memorialized with the Thunderbirds Delta pictured on the official Air Force 50th Anniversary U.S. Postal stamp. On Sept. 18, 1997, the United States Postal Service had official unveilings of the stamp in both the Pentagon and the Thunderbird hangar.

The Thunderbirds made television history in 2003 while celebrating their 50th Anniversary. The commander/leader started the Coca-Cola 600 by broadcasting live from Thunderbirds No. 1 as he said, “Gentlemen, start your engines.”

In 2007, the Thunderbirds visited Europe for the first time since Sept. 11, 2001 with the European Goodwill Tour. The trip included shows in Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Italy, France, United Kingdom, and for the first time in Thunderbirds history, Ireland.

The team took its fifth Far East tour during the 2009 show season. The team’s tour included visits to Hawaii, Australia, Thailand, Guam, Malaysia, Japan and Korea. The team performed more than 70 shows in 22 states and Puerto Rico in 2009.

The team’s 59th show season included stops in Alaska and Canada, plus dozens more.

In 2013, the team flew only 2 demonstrations after leaders throughout the DOD were forced to make several tough, but necessary decisions to accommodate sequestration. The jets did not fly for the rest of that season, but despite flying limitations, the team exceled by interacting with more than 10,000 students and continuing to share the Air Force message.

Millions of people have witnessed the Thunderbirds demonstrations, and in turn, they’ve seen the pride, professionalism and dedication of hundreds of thousands of Airmen serving at home and abroad. Each year brings another opportunity for the team to represent those who deserve the most credit: the everyday, hard-working Airmen voluntarily serving America and defending freedom.


All virtual participants will receive a commemorative patch, an American made 3.5″ finisher’s medal with sublimated ribbon portraying the featured aircraft, a 3″x5″ information card on the featured aircraft and its history, and a custom downloadable finisher certificate.

The registration price includes domestic shipping costs (additional costs apply for international shipping). Race items will be shipped 6-8 weeks after registration opens (i.e. If you register for the first race in the series on December 1st, we will ship your race packet to you toward the end of January. If you register for the first race in the series in March (pending availability), we will ship your race packet to you within two weeks of your registration.)


Korea - The Forgotten War

Left: Australian Troops lead a UN parade of Korean Veterans
through the streets of New York, USA, 1953.

The Korean War started with alarming suddenness when on 25th June 1950 Communist North Korean troops, solidly supported by Soviet equipment crossed the 38th parallel dividing the north from the south.

Australia which still had troops stationed in occupied Japan as part of the BCOF was one of the first countries to join the United States in going to South Korea's assistance. HMA Ships Bataan and Shoalhaven were still on duty in Japan as was the RAAF's No. 77 Squadron, equipped with mustang fighters at Iwakuni. These units were immediately placed on alert. HMAS Shoalhaven being the first Australian unit to begin operations. In July she escorted a USN Ammunition ship to Pusan. A few days later Bataan began ops followed in September by Warramunga replacing Shoalhaven who was due for refit. Bataan carried out coastal bombardments in support of troop landings in June and July. Warramunga supported the landings at Inchon on 15th September and two weeks later in October assisted with coastal bombardments for Allied landings on the South East Coast and in bombardments of Chongiin to the North.

With the Allied reverses following the Chinese intervention into the war Seoul again fell to the communists and it became necessary to evacuate the Port of Chinnanpo, South West of Pyongyang. Early in December Warramunga and Bataan, together with other allied ships were sent to the area to act as 'watchdogs' for the evacuation and Bataan assisted in blowing up the oil storages.

Bataan was relieved in 1951 by Murchison which took part in shore bombardments on the west coast during July. On the 28th September in the Han River estuary Murchison was hit by fire from the shore batteries and three of her crew were wounded.

It became obvious that the war becoming protracted and the Australian Government agreed to commit more forces

Three more ships were committed, the new carrier HMAS Sydney, and the destroyers 'Anzac' and 'Tobruk' were allotted.. Sydney arrived in the area in September and relieved HMS Glory, and the following month began patrols of the west coast. Her aircraft consisted of Sea-Furies of 805 and 808 Squadrons and fireflies of 817 Squadron which began flying ops on 5 October.

The first weeks saw HMAS Sydney launching air strikes on the east and west coasts, mostly against troop concentrations and railways. Three aircraft were shot down but all pilots were rescued. On 5 November a Sea fury was shot down and the pilot killed. Later in the month HMA Ships Sydney and Tobruk took part in attacks off the east coast, returning to the west coast in December. On 7 December Sydney's second death occurred with the loss of a Sea-Fury and its pilot due to AA fire. On 2 January another Sea-Fury and pilot failed to return.


Above: HMAS Tobruk on Station in Korea.

HMAS Sydney returned to Australia in February 1952 and HMA Ships Bataan and Warramunga (not ANZAC as some official history records show- Thanks to Tom Hamilton a Warramunga Korean Veteran) returned to Korea to continue coastal blockades and shore bombardments until the wars end. Tobruk joined them in June 1953, followed by the frigate Condamine two months later. Finally the frigate Culgoa arrived for duty in April 1953 and Condamine returned home.


SYDNEY and Escorts Replenishing on Station in Korean Waters

The uneasy 'peace' following the end of hostilities on 27 July 1953 made it easy for the Allies to maintain a peace keeping force in Korea. HMA Ships Sydney, Tobruk, Arunta, Condamine, Shoalhaven and Murchison all did post war duty for varying periods until November 1955. The Korean war had cost the R.A.N. three pilots killed and one wounded from Sydney, three sailors wounded in action in Murchison and one each from Bataan and Condamine, Sydney's aircraft flew 2366 sorties, dropped 410,000 lbs of bombs and fired 6359 Rockets plus 270,000 rounds of 20mm ammunition.

The destroyers and frigates fired more than 25,000 rounds from their main armament and more than 60,000 rounds of 40mm and two pounder ammunition.

A total of 311 officers and 4196 men of the R.A.N. served in operations in Korea. Sixty six of them were decorated as follows: CBE 1, DSO 2, OBE 3, MBE 3, DSC 11, Bar to DSC 2, 2nd Bar to DSC 1, DSM 3, BEM 4, MID 36.

RAN IN THE KOREAN WAR

BY: J.H. Straczek, Senior Naval Historical Officer

Since 1910 Korea had been an integral part of the Japanese Empire. The people of Korea, however, sought independence and many influential Koreans agitated for such overseas. Dreams of Korean independence appeared to have become a reality when the Cairo Declaration of 1 December 1943 made Korean independence an Allied war aim. This declaration was followed by a decision, between the United States and America, to divide Korea at the 38th parallel in order that the occupying Japanese could be disarmed.

The decision to divide Korea had one unforseen consequence. The northern half was ultimately closed and a communist regime established under Kim Il-sung, whilst in the south United Nations sponsored elections were held. The situation along the 38th parallel remained tense and finally on 25 June 1950 North Korea invade the South. United Nations reaction to this invasion was swift and on 27 June the United Nations requested assistance for South Korea.
On the 29 June the Australian Prime Minister Sir Robert Menzies decided to place HMA Ships SHOALHAVEN and BATAAN at the disposal of United Nations authorities in support of the Republic of Korea. From this time onwards until the cessation of maritime operations on 27 July 1953, RAN units played a major role in support of United Nations operations.

Predominantly RAN destroyers and frigates were involved in conducting blockade, escort and bombardment duties on both sides of the Korean Peninsular.

Escort and blockade duties were generally tedious but none the less essential. The frigate SHOALHAVEN served as on escort duties until relieved by HMAS WARRAMUNGA. On occasion, with ships carrying out coastal blockade duties close to shore, enemy shore batteries would open fire. The first such exchange involving an RAN ship occurred on 1 August 1950 when BATAAN was attacked by shore batteries whilst patrolling the northern approaches to the Seoul R. BATAAN returned fire and silenced four of the enemy guns. The cruiser HMS BELFAST soon joined BATAAN and both ships engaged the enemy. BATAAN was straddled by enemy fire on a number of occasions during the duel.

On 29 August WARRAMUNGA provided escort support for the first non-American troops to arrive in Korea. These British troops were landed at Pusan. WARRAMUNGA was also to act as part of the screen for the Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS TRIUMPH when she operated off the east coast near Wusan.

Both WARRAMUNGA and BATAAN were assigned to screening duties for the Allied landings at Inchon on 15 September. At about this time it was also decided to extend the period of RAN ships to a year. This was because the RAN was unable to provide relief ships. Five years after World War Two the RAN had difficulty in sustaining two ships on war service. Both ships were to spend most of their service conducting patrols and bombardments of enemy positions and facilities. They were operating near the Yalu River when China intervened on the side of North Korea.

BATAAN was relieved by HMAS MURCHISON in June 1951. During her deployment MURCHISON was to gain fame, and good fortune, during engagements with enemy shore batteries off the Han River. In September/October 1951 whilst patrolling near the Han River MURCHISON was engaged by a mixed group of enemy guns ranging from 75 mm to 50 mm and smaller. In the ensuing gun duel MURCHISON returned fire with her main armament and 40 mm Bofors guns. Her intense and accurate fire quickly silenced the enemy guns. The next day, while patrolling the same area MURCHISON was again engaged by enemy shore batteries. In this instant MURCHISON received a number of hits, fortunately there were no fatalities. With the arrival of other ships the Communist batteries were quickly silenced.

By this stage WARRAMUNGA had been relieved by HMAS ANZAC. During her tour of duty ANZAC was engaged in conducting the patrols as well as landing intelligence teams and some train hunting. ANZAC's short deployment came to an end on 30 September 1951 when she escorted HMS GLORY to Australia for a refit. ANZAC was replaced by HMAS TOBRUK.

In addition to the operations of the destroyers and frigates the aircraft carrier HMAS SYDNEY and embarked squadrons were also deployed to the Korean theatre. Her first operations were on 4 October 1951 on the west coast. After transferring to the east coast she commenced operations against enemy troop concentrations and suspected supply dumps. On 21 October SYDNEY's aircraft attack a large concentration of junks preparing to launch an assault on Taehwa Do Island. Other operations included support for the Commonwealth Division and search and rescue patrols.

SYDNEY's aircraft were generally engaged in operations against lines of communication, troop concentrations and industrial infra-structure. Weather conditions were a major influence on operations at this stage. During the middle of her deployment SYDNEY was operating off Korea in the northern winter at time sub-zero temperatures were experienced. Such conditions limited flying operations.

SYDNEY's deployment to the Korean theatre resulted in the general introduction of fluorescent panels to aid rescue aircraft. The system devised by CAPT Harries to aid rescue aircraft in locating downed crews were so successful that it was recommended for general introduction.

After a stay of six months SYDNEY departed for Australia accompanied by TOBRUK. MURCHISON also left the war zone, she had spent a total of 60 days in the Han River region. By this stage WARRAMUNGA and BATAAN had returned to Korea. On 14 February BATAAN was hit by enemy coastal batteries but no major was sustained. In March WARRAMUNGA was also the target of enemy shore based fire but was not hit. Both ships continued to be engaged in patrol and bombardment work throughout this second deployment.

In the second half of 1952 the ANZAC and HMAS CONDAMINE were deployed to the war zone. In September and October CONDAMINE defeated an attempt by Communist forces to capture the Island of Tok Som. Whilst ANZAC, like the hips she relieved, received the unwelcome attention of North Korean shore batteries. By this stage the war on the peninsular had reached a stalemate and serious attempts were being made to resolve the situation. However, it would not be until July 1953 that naval operations would be halted and by that stage two more RAN ships had deployed to Korea. These were HMAS CULGOA and TOBRUK. During her deployment CULGOA aided in the evacuation of Allied troops from Yong Mae do Island. The naval war off Korea ended on the 27 July 1953. However, RAN units continued to serve in the area for some time to come in support of the United Nations.

As well as conducting military operations in the Korean theatre of operations members of the RAN provided assistance to the general populace. Throughout 1950/51 RAN ships regularly mercy runs to off shore islands carrying rice and other food stuffs. HMAS CONDAMINE, in 1952, discovered about 100 orphaned Korean children living with the locals on an island off the west coast. The ship's company provided these children with warm clothing, fruit chocolate and meat. On a subsequent trip the ship delivered a large number of toys purchased with money collected by the sailors.


Watch the video: Culgoa Floodplain National Park 12 Open Road, Drought, Pastoral Life, Barefoot Solitude (May 2022).


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